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The exceptions may be applied, generally, only to workers over 14 years, but in mines, by royal decree, boys over 12 years may be employed from 4 A. The law of fixes only a maximum of 12 hours of effective work, to be interrupted by pauses for rest of not less than 12 hours, empowering the king by decree to formulate more precise limits suited to the special circumstances of individual industries.
Royal decrees have accordingly laid down the conditions for many groups, including textile trades, manufacture of paper, pottery, glass, clothing, mines, quarries, engineering and printing works. In some the daily limit is 10 hours, but in more or I I hours. In a few exceptionally unhealthy trades, such as the manufacture of lucifer matches, vulcanization of india - rubber by means of carbcn bi-sulphide, the age of exclusion from employment has been raised, and in the last-named process hours have been reduced to 5, broken into two spells of As a rule the conditions of health and safeguarding of employments in exceptionally injurious trades have been sought by a series of decrees under the law of relating to public health in such industries.
Special regulations for safety of workers have been introduced in manufactures of white-lead, oxides of lead, chromate of lead, lucifer match works, rag and shoddy works; and for dangers common to many industries, provisions against dust, poisons, accidents and other risks to health or limb have been codified in a decree of A royal decree of 31 March prohibits employment of persons under 16 years in fur -pulling and in carotting of rabbit skins, and another of 13 May regulates use of lead in house- painting.
In a law was passed to enable the authorities to deal with risks in quarries under the same procedure. Safety in mines which are not private property, but state concessions to be worked under strict state control has been provided for since In matters of hygiene, until the powers of the public health authorities to intervene were insufficient, and a law was passed authorizing the government to make regulations for every kind of risk in any undertaking, whether classed under the law of public health or not.
By a special law of children and young persons under 18 years are excluded from employment as pedlars, hawkers or in circuses, except by their parents, and then only if they have attained 14 years. Abuses of the truck system have, sincebeen regulated with care. The chief objects of the law of were to secure payment in full to all workers, other than those in agriculture or domestic service, of wages in legal tenderto prohibit payment of wages in public-houses, and to secure prompt payment of wages.
Certain deductions were permitted under careful control for specific customary objects: A royal order of the Loth of October required use of automatic indicators for estimating wages in certain cases in textile processes. The law of 15 June regulates the affixing in workplaces, where at least five workers are employed, of a notice of the working rules, the nature and rate of fines, if any, and the mode of their application.
Two central services the mines inspectorate and the factory and workshop inspectorate, divide the duties above indicated. There is also a system of local administration of the regulations relating to industries classed as unhealthy, but the tendency has been to give the supreme control in these matters to the factory service, with its expert staff.
The Netherlands[ edit ] The first law for regulation of labour in manufacture was passed inand this related only to employment of children. The basis of all existing regulations was established in the law of 5 Maywhich applies to all industrial undertakings, excluding agriculture and forestry, fishing, stock-rearing. Employment of children under 12 years is prohibited, and hours are limited for young persons under 16 and for women of any age.
These protected persons may be excluded by royal decree from unhealthy industries, and such industries are specified in a decree of which supersedes other earlier regulations. Hours of employment must not exceed 11 in the 24, and at least one hour for rest must be given between 11 A. Work before 5 A.
Overtime from 7 to P. Employment of women within four weeks of childbirth is prohibited. Notices of working hours must be affixed in workplaces. Underground work in mines is prohibited for women and young persons under 16, but in the Netherlands mining is a very small industry. In the first legislative provision was made for protection of workers against risk of accident or special injury to health.
Sufficient cubic space, lighting, ventilation, sanitary accommodation, reasonable temperature, removal of noxious gases or dust, fencing of machinery, precautions against risk from fire and other matters are provided for.
The manufacture of lucifer matches by means of white phosphorus was forbidden and the export, importation and sale was regulated by a law of 28 May By a regulation of 16 March provisions for safety and health of women and young workers were strengthened in processes where lead compounds or other poisons are used, and their employment at certain dangerous machines and in cleaning machinery or near driving belts was prohibited.
No penal provision against truck exists in the Netherlands, but possibly abuses of the system are prevented by the existence of industrial councils representing both employers and workers, with powers to mediate or arbitrate in case of disputes. Switzerland[ edit ] In Switzerland separate cantonal legislation prepared the way for the general Federal labour law of on which subsequent legislation rests.
Such legislation is also cantonal as well as Federal, but in the latter there is only amplification or interpretation of the principles contained in the law ofwhereas cantonal legislation covers industries not included under the Federal law, e.
The Federal law is applied to factories, workshops employing young persons under 18 or more than 10 workers, and workshops in which unhealthy or dangerous processes are carried on. Mines are not included, but are regulated in some respects as regards health and safety by cantonal laws. Further, the Law of Employers' Liabilitywhich requires in all industries precautions against accidents and reports of all serious. This led, into the creation of a special mining department, and mines, of which there are few, have to be inspected once a year by a mining engineer.
The majority of the provisions of the Federal labour law apply to adult workers of both sexes, and the general limit of the II-hours' day, exclusive of at least one hour for meals, applies to men as well as women. The latter have, however, a legal claim, when they have a household to manage, to leave work at the dinner-hour half an hour earlier than the men.
Men and unmarried women may be employed in such subsidiary work as cleaning before or after the general legal limits. On Saturdays and eves of the eight public holidays the II-hours' day is reduced to Sunday work and night work are forbidden, but exceptions are permitted conditionally.
Night work is defined as 8 P. Children are excluded from employment in workplaces, under the law until 14 years of age, and until 16 must attend continuation schools. Zurich canton has fixed the working day for women at 10 hours generally, and 9 hours on Saturdays and eves of holidays.
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Bale-Ville canton has the same limits and provides that the very limited Sunday employment permitted shall be compensated by double time off on another day. In the German-speaking cantons girls under 18 are not permitted to work overtime; in all cantons except Glarus the conditional overtime of 2 hours must be paid for at an enhanced wage.
Sanitary regulations and fencing of machinery are provided for with considerable minuteness in a Federal decree of The plans of every new factory must be submitted to the cantonal government. In the case of lucifer match factories, not only the building but methods of manufacture must be submitted. Since the manufacture, sale and import of matches containing white phosphorus have been forbidden.
Women must be absent from employment during eight weeks before and after childbirth. In certain dangerous occupations, e. A resolution of the federal council in classed thirty-four different substances in use in industry as dangerous and laid down that in case of clearly defined illness of workers directly caused by use of any of these substances the liability provided by article 3 of the law of 25 Juneand article I of the law of 26 Aprilshould apply to the manufacture.
Legislative provision against abuses of the truck system appears to be of earlier origin in Switzerland 17th century than any other European country outside England 15th century. The Federal Labour Law generally prohibits payment of wages otherwise than in current coin, and provides that no deduction shall be made without an express contract.
Some of the cantonal laws go much farther than the British act of in forbidding certain deductions; e. Zurich prohibits any charge for cleaning, warming or lighting workrooms or for hire of machinery. By the Federal law fines may not exceed half a day's wage.
Administration of the Labour laws is divided between inspectors appointed by the Federal Government and local authorities, under supervision of the cantonal governments. The Federal Government forms a court of appeal against decisions of the cantonal governments. Germany[ edit ] Regulation of the conditions of labour in industry throughout the German empire is provided for in the Imperial Industrial Code and the orders of the Federal Council based thereon. By far the most important recent amendment socially is the law regulating child-labour, dated 30 Marchwhich relates to establishments having industrial character in the sense of the Industrial Code.
This Code is based on earlier industrial codes of the separate states, but more especially on the Code of of the North German Confederation.
R.M. Wanzer and Company
It applies in whole or in part to all trades and industrial occupations, except transport, fisheries and agriculture. Mines are only included so far as truck, Sunday and holiday rest, prohibition of employment underground of female labour, limitation of the hours of women and young workers are concerned; otherwise the regulations for protection of life and limb of miners vary, as do the mining laws of the different states.
To estimate the force of the Industrial Code in working, it is necessary to bear in mind the complicated political history of the empire, the separate administration by the federated states, and the generally considerable powers vested in administration of initiating regulations. The Industrial Code expressly retains power for the states to initiate certain additions or exceptions to the Code which in any given state may form part of the law regulating factories there.
The Code unlike the Austrian Industrial Code lays down no general limit for a normal working day for adult male workers, but since full powers were given to the Imperial government to limit hours for any classes of workers in industries where excessive length of the working day endangers the health of the worker R. Previously application had been made of powers to reduce the working day in such unhealthy industries as silvering of mirrors by mercury and the manufacture of white-lead.
Separate states had, under mining laws, also limited hours of miners. Sunday rest was, insecured for every class of workers, commercial, industrial and mining. Annual holidays were also secured on church festivals.
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These provisions, however, are subject to exceptions under conditions. An important distinction has to be shown when we turn to the regulations for hours and times of labour for protected persons women, young persons and children. Setting aside for the moment hours of shop assistants which are under special sections sinceit is to " factory workers " and not to industrial workers in general that these limits apply, although they may be, and in some instances have been, further extended - for instance, in ready-made clothing trades - by imperial decree to workshops, and by the Child Labour Law of regulation of the scope and duration of employment of children is much strengthened in workshops, commerce, transport and domestic industries.
The term " factory " Fabrik is not defined in the Code, but it is clear from various decisions of the supreme court that it only in part coincides with the English term, and that some workplaces, where processes are carried on by aid of mechanical power, rank rather as English workshops.
The distinction is rather between wholesale manufacturing industry, with subdivision of labour, and small industry, where the employer works himself. Certain classes of undertaking, viz. Employment of protected persons at the surface of mines and underground quarries, and in salt works and ore-dressing works, and of boys underground comes under the factory regulations. These exclude children from employment under 13 years, and even later if an educational certificate has not been obtained; until 14 years hours of employment may not exceed 6 in the In processes and occupations under the scope of the Child Labour Law children may not be employed by their parents or guardians before Jo years of age or by other employers before 12 years of age; nor between the hours of 8 P.
In school term time the daily limit of employment for children is three hours, in holiday time three hours. As regards factories Germany, unlike Great Britain, France and Switzerland, requires a shorter day for young persons than for women - io hours for the former, t t hours for the latter. Women over 16 years may be employed i 1 hours. Night work is forbidden, i.
Overtime may be granted to meet unforeseen pressure or for work on perishable articles, under conditions, by local authorities and the higher administrative authorities. Prescribed meal-times are - an unbroken half-hour for children in their 6 hours; for young persons a midday pause of one hour, and half an hour respectively in the morning and afternoon spells; for women, an hour at midday, but women with the care of a household have the claim, on demand, to an extra halfhour, as in Switzerland.
No woman may be employed within four weeks after childbirth, and unless a medical certificate can then be produced, the absence must extend to six weeks. Notice of working periods and meal-times must be affixed, and copies sent to the local authorities. Employment of protected persons in factory industries where there are special risks to health or morality may be forbidden or made dependent on special conditions.
By the Child Labour Law employment of children is forbidden in brickworks, stone breaking, chimney sweeping, street cleaning and other processes and occupations.
By an order of the Federal Council in female workers were excluded from main processes in forges and rolling mills. All industrial employers alike are bound to organize labour in such a manner as to secure workers against injury to health and to ensure good conduct and propriety. Sufficient light, suitable cloakrooms and sanitary accommodation, and ventilation to carry off dust, vapours and other impurities are especially required. Dining rooms may be ordered by local authorities.
Fencing and provision for safety in case of fire are required in detail. The work of the trade accident insurance associations in preventing accidents is especially recognized in provisions for special rules in dangerous or unhealthy industries. Officials of the state factory departments are bound to give opportunity to trustees of the trade associations to express an opinion on special rules.
In a large number of industries the Federal Council has laid down special rules comparable with those for unhealthy occupations in Great Britain. Among the regulations most recently revised and strengthened are those for manufacture of lead colours and lead compounds, and for horse-hair and brushmaking factories. The relations between the state inspectors of factories and the ordinary police authorities are regulated in each state by its constitution.
Prohibitions of truck in its original sense - that is, payment of wages otherwise than in current coin - apply to any persons under a contract of service with an employer for a specified time for industrial purposes; members of a family working for a parent or husband are not included; outworkers are covered.
Control of fines and deductions from wages applies only in factory industries and shops employing at least 20 workers. Shop hours are regulated by requiring shops to be closed generally between 9 P. These limits can be modified by administrative authority. Notice of hours and working rules must be affixed. During the hours of compulsory closing sale of goods on the streets or from house to house is forbidden.
Under the Commercial Code, as under the Civil Code, every employer is bound to adopt every possible measure for maintaining the safety, health and good conduct of his employees. By an order of the Imperial Chancellor under the Commercial Code seats must be provided for commercial assistants and apprentices. Austro Hungarian Empire[ edit ] The Austro-Hungarian empire was dissolved at the end of the first world war.
The Industrial Code of Austria, as ofdates fromdiffered from the Industrial Code of the kingdom of Hungary. The latter is, owing to the predominantly agricultural character of the population, of later origin, and hardly had practical force before the law of provided for inspection and prevention of accidents in factories. No separate mining code existed in Hungary, and conditions of labour are regulated by the Austrian law of The truck system is repressed on lines similar to those in Austria and Germany.
The Austrian Code has its origin, however, like the British Factory Acts, in protection of child labour. Its present scope is determined by the Imperial " Patent " ofand all industrial labour is included except mining, transport, fisheries, forestry, agriculture and domestic industries. Factories are defined as including industries in which a " manufacturing process is carried on in an enclosed place by the aid of not less than twenty workers working with machines, with subdivision of labour, and under an employer who does not himself manually assist in the work.
In every industrial establishment, large or small, the sanitary and safety provisions, general requirement of Sunday rest, and annual holidays with conditional exceptionsprohibition of truck and limitation of the ages of child labour apply.
Night work for women, 8 P. Pauses in work are required in all industries; one hour at least must be given at midday, and if the morning and afternoon spells exceed 5 hours each, another half-hour's rest at least must be given. Children may not be employed in industrial work before 12 years, and then only 8 hours a day at work that is not injurious and if educational requirements are observed.
The age of employment is raised to 14 for " factories," and the work must be such as will not hinder physical development. Women may not be employed in regular industrial occupation within one month after childbirth.
In certain scheduled unhealthy industries, where certificates of authorization from local authorities must be obtained by intending occupiers, conditions of health and safety for workers can be laid down in the certificate.
The Minister of the Interior is empowered to draw up regulations prohibiting or making conditions for the employment of young workers or women in dangerous or unhealthy industries. The provisions against truck cover not only all industrial workers engaged in manual labour under a contract with an employer, but also shopassistants; the special regulations against fines and deductions apply to factory workers and shops where at least 20 workers are employed.
In mines under the law ofwhich supplements the general mining law, employment of women and girls underground is prohibited; boys from 12 to 16 and girls from 12 to 18 may only be employed at light work above ground; 14 is the earliest age of admission for boys underground. The shifts from bank to bank must not exceed 12 hours, of which not more than to may be effective work. Sunday rest must begin not later than 6 A. These last two provisions do not hold in case of pressing danger for safety, health or property.
Sick and accident funds and mining associations are legislated for in minutest detail. The general law provides for safety in working, but special rules drawn up by the district authorities lay down in detail the conditions of health and safety. As regards manufacturing industry, the Industrial Code lays no obligation on employers to report accidents, and until the Accident Insurance Law of came into force no statistics were available.
In Austria, unlike Germany, the factory inspectorate is organized throughout under a central chief inspector. Until that year, however, Norway was in some respects in advance of the other two countries by its law ofwhich applied to industrial works, including metal works of all kinds and mining.
Women were thereby prohibited from employment: Further, work on Sundays and public holidays is prohibited to all workers, adult and youthful, with conditional exceptions under the authority of the inspectors. Children over 12 are admitted to industrial work on obtaining certificates of birth, of physical fitness and of elementary education. The hours of children are limited to 6, with pauses, and of young persons of 14 to 18 years to 10, with pauses.
Night work between 8 P. All workers are entitled to a copy of a code of factory rules containing the terms of the contract of work drawn up by representatives of employees with the employers and sanctioned by the inspector. Health and safety in working are provided for in detail in the same law of Special rules may be made for dangerous trades, and in such rules were established for match factories, similar to some of the British rules, but notably providing for a dental examination four times yearly by a doctor.
In Denmark, regulation began with unhealthy industries, and it was not until the law of came into force, on 1 Januarythat children under 12 years have been excluded from factory labour. Control of child labour can be strengthened by municipal regulation, and this has been done in Copenhagen by an order of 23 May In Sweden the 12 years' limit had for some time held in the larger factories; the scope has been extended so that it corresponds with the Norwegian law.
The hours of children are, in Denmark, 62 for those under 14 years; in Sweden 6 for those under 13 years. Young persons may not in either country work more than 10 hours daily, and night work, which is forbidden for persons under 18 years, is now defined as in Norway.
Women may not be employed in industry within four weeks of childbirth, except on authority of a medical certificate. All factories in Sweden where young workers are employed are subject to medical inspection once a year.
Fencing of machinery and hygienic conditions ventilation, cubic space, temperature, light are regulated in detail. In Denmark the use of white phosphorus in manufacture of lucifer matches has been prohibited sinceand special regulations have been drawn up by administrative orders which strengthen control of various unhealthy or dangerous industries, dry-cleaning works, printing works and type foundries, iron foundries and engineering works. A special act of 6 April regulates labour and sanitary conditions in bakehouses and confectionery works.
Italy and Spain[ edit ] The wide difference between the industrial development of these southern Latin countries and the two countries with which this summary begins, and the far greater importance of the agricultural interests, produced a situation, as regards labour legislation until as recently aswhich makes it convenient to touch on the comparatively limited scope of their regulations at the close of the series.
It was stated by competent and impartial observers from each of the two countries, at the International Congress on Labour Laws held at Brussels inthat the lack of adequate measures for protection of child labour and inefficient administration of such regulations as exist was then responsible for abuse of their forces that could be found in no other European countries.
In both countries important progress has since been made in organizing inspection and preventing accidents. In Spain the first step in the direction of limitation of women's hours of labour was taken by a law ofwhich took effect inin regulations for reduction of hours of labour for adults to II, normally, in the Hours of children under 14 must not exceed 6 in any industrial work nor 8 in any commercial undertaking. Labour before the age of 10 years and night work between 6P.
The labour of children in Italy was until regulated in the main by a law ofbut a royal decree of strengthened it by classing night work for children under 12 years as " injurious," such work being thereby generally prohibited for them, though exceptions are admitted; at the same time it was laid down that children from 12 to 15 years might not be employed for more than 6 hours at night. The law of prohibits employment of children under 9 years in industry and under To years in underground mining.
Night work for women was in Italy first prohibited by the law of 19 Juneand at the same time also for boys under 15, but this regulation was not to take full effect for 5 years as regards persons already so employed; by the same law persons under 15 and women of any age were accorded the claim to one day's complete rest of 24 hours in the week; the age of employment of children in factories, workshops, laboratories, quarries, mines, was raised to 12 years generally and 14 years for underground work; the labour of female workers of any age was prohibited in underground work, and power was reserved to further restrict and regulate their employment as well as that of male workers under Spain and Italy, the former by the law of 13 Marchthe latter by the law of 19 Juneprohibit the employment of women within a fixed period of childbirth; in Spain the limit is three weeks, in Italy one month, which may be reduced to three weeks on a medical certificate of fitness.
Sunday rest is secured in industrial works, with regulated exceptions in Spain by the law of 3 March It is in the direction of fencing and other safeguards against accidents and as regards sanitary provisions, both in industrial workplaces and in mines, that Italy has made most advance since her law of for prevention of accidents.
Special measures for prevention of malaria are required in cultivation of rice by a ministerial circular of 23 April ; work may not begin until an hour after sunrise and must cease an hour before sunset; children under 13 may not be employed in this industry. It includes what is properly known as factory legislation.
Labour legislation belongs to the latter half of the 19th century, so far as the United States is concerned. Like England in the far past, the Americans in colonial days undertook to regulate wages and prices, and later the employment of apprentices.
Legislation relating to wages and prices was long ago abandoned, but the laws affecting the employment of apprentices still exist in some form, although conditions of employment have changed so materially that apprenticeships are not entered as of old; but the laws regulating the employment of apprentices were the basis on which English legislation found a foothold when parliament wished to regulate the labour of factory operatives.
The code of labour laws of the present time is almost entirely the result of the industrial revolution during the latter part of the 18th century, under which the domestic or hand-labour system was displaced through the introduction of power machinery.
As this revolution took place in the United States at a somewhat later date than in England, the labour legislation necessitated by it belongs to a later date. The factory, so far as textiles are concerned, was firmly established in America during the period from toand it was natural that the English legislation found friends and advocates in the United States, although the more objectionable conditions accompanying the English factory were not to be found there.
The first attempt to secure legislation regulating factory employment related to the hours of labour, which were very long - from twelve to thirteen hours a day. Early during the introduction of machinery, it was felt that the tension resulting from speeded machines and the close attention required in the factory ought to be accompanied by a shorter work day.
This view took firm hold of the operatives and was the chief cause of the agitation which has resulted in a great body of laws applying in very many directions. As early as the caulkers and shipbuilders of New York City agitated for a reduction of hours to ten per day, but no legislation followed.
There were several other attempts to secure some regulation relative to hours, but there was no general agitation prior to As Massachusetts was the state which first recognized the necessity of regulating employment following in a measure, and so far as conditions demanded, the English labour or factory legislationthe history of such legislation in that state is indicative of that in the United States, and as it would be impossible in this article to give a detailed history of the origin of laws in the different states, the dates of their enactment, and their provisions, it is best to follow primarily the course of the Eastern states, and especially that of Massachusetts, where the first general agitation took place and the first laws were enacted.
That state in regulated by law the question of the education of young persons employed in manufacturing establishments. The regulation of hours of labour was warmly discussed inand several legislative committees and commissions reported upon it, but no specific action on the general question of hours of labour secured the indorsement of the Massachusetts legislature untilalthough the day's labour of children under twelve years of age was limited to ten hours in Collection Guelph Civic Museum, cat.
Webster, and operated from to in Hamilton. At its peak it employed approximately seventy-five labourers. First exhibited in at the Provincial Exhibition in Hamilton, the primary distinction of this machine was that it was constructed without gears or cams.
Webster's "Patent" Shuttle Sewing Machine was popular in the early s height Made by the Canada Sewing Machine Company. Display large image of Figure 18 Private collection. At the Provincial Exhibition of ten different styles of the Webster machine were exhibited and to show off its capabilities a demonstrator stitched two thick pieces of sheet lead together for the audience. In it was bought by R. Wanzer and Company which shortly thereafter discontinued the Webster machine and expanded its factory on the site of the former Canada Sewing Machine Company works.
Willson in Hamilton in Although two types of shuttle machines are known to have been manufactured by the firm, only one model could be located for this study.
This machine, patented 31 Mayclaimed three distinctive features: The Royal did not claim any new inventions in the principle of the sewing machine but was rather an improved and updated version of the Gardner.
The Royal is similar in design to the Gardner, the Arm being higher, giving more room under it enabling the operator to do a large piece of work with much ease The main shaft is a shade heavier This is a great convenience, and often saves the trouble of removing the work when the Shuttle thread is exhausted The Shuttle will contain 50 yards of thread This is the only Ontario-made machine with this type of arrangement.
Display large image of Figure 19 Private collection. It weighed a total of one and a half pounds including the stand and sewed as perfectly as any of Gardner's full-sized machines. This firm was founded in or by three men - Andrew Wilson, a former bookkeeper for R. Their combined talents created a prosperous and profitable operation which expanded to a second factory in Fergus in From to it was known as Wilson, Bowman and Company.
Inwhen John Bowman left to establish another company, the name was changed to Wilson, Lockman and Company. In the name was changed again to Wilson and Company. Finally, in the company was taken over by F.
Wilson, Bowman and Company manufactured this machine, called the Lockman, in the s height 16 cm, length 32 cm. Display large image of Figure 20 Private collection.
However, unlike most of the large manufacturers, the Wilson company did not make a series of family machines but stuck to one basic model, the Lockman Family Shuttle Machine. Very little is known about the development of the Lockman machine or the company. Andrew Wilson, who remained longest with the firm, took out two sewing machine patents in for various improvements.
These patents were incorporated in an improved Lockman machine which was manufactured before the company went out of business in Hespler to establish another sewing machine manufactory in Hamilton. As one source described it, Hespler "saw wealth in the manufacture of sewing machines and he hiked to Hamilton to start up a factory He lowered his bank account by a few thousand dollars and then like a wise man dropped out of the game Display large image of Figure 21 Private collection.
The Hespler family sewing machine is unusually long and thin. Despite this unique feature it resembles the Lockman machine in two areas -the formation of the gears in the balance wheel and the peculiar throat plate section. The machine is highly decorated, both on its body and on the legs of the stand, and bears the following information: Hespler Sewing Machine Co.
His improvements to the thread take-up and stitch regulator were both incorporated in the Hespler machine. Miller and Company 63 The history of the J. Miller and Company, a small establishment located in Perth, is sketchy and virtually nothing is known about the manufactory except that it was in operation between and The Venus, made by J.
Millar in Perth is one of the most decorative machines produced in the nineteenth century height 18 cm, length Display large image of Figure 22 Collection: Catharines Historical Museum, cat no. Miller and Company manufactured a lock-stitch machine called the Venus and it was certainly deserving of the name since the Venus was probably the most ornate and attractive sewing machine manufactured in Ontario. Every cast piece is not only delicately hand-painted with roses and leaves, but is decorative in shape as well.
The Venus has a number of unusual features. Instead of a solid base or arm support on the right, there is a flat, shapely, cast section which hides the gears.
The spooler spindle is situated high up on this "arm" and even it is shapely and ornate. The Venus also has a special thread guide which releases the thread when the needle goes down and holds the thread tight when the needle is raised. This feature replaces the more commonly used take-up lever. Appleton Manufacturing Company 65 Although primarily noted for its knitting machines, the Appleton company of Hamilton also manufactured sewing machines between and His improvements involved changes to the feed attachment and the shuttle motion of sewing machines.
No examples have been located. Fergus Manufacturing Company 70 Research on the Fergus Manufacturing Company has raised more questions than it has answered. The only information on the company found to date indicates that it was listed in the Mercantile Agency Reference Books in and and was considered to be of moderate size. Barclay took out three Canadian sewing machine patents between and and a number of features on the Barclay machine can be identified in his patent specifications.
Although the machine is quite ordinary in design and appearance, probably very few were manufactured Because of the poor condition of the particular model located for this study, much of the information is obscured and further research will be necessary to provide answers about the Barclay and its manufacturer.
The Barclay, made by the Fergus Manufacturing Company in the s height 20 cm, length 29 cm. Display large image of Figure 23 Collection: Wellington County Museum, cat.