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Paris started mobilizing for war in September , when Nazi Germany invaded Poland, but .. The bars of the Champs-Élysées, and other parts of Paris, became common meeting places between .. University was closed, students were required to regularly report to the police, and the Latin Quarter was closely watched. Our selection of the top 10 gay bars in Paris, with opening times, reviews and more. Paris is an obvious starting point, but it's easy to connect from the capital to two The South of France's swanky beach bars and Bordeaux's beautiful up-and- coming neighborhoods (and a slew of new dating apps) are making it . on the packed terrace at Spanish tapas bar El Merkado near the Cours.

The German officers enjoyed the Ritz, Maxim'sthe Coupole and other exclusive restaurants, as the exchange rate was fixed to favor the German occupiers. Many houses of prostitution existed in Paris and they began to cater to German clients. Parisians[ edit ] By the time that the Germans arrived in Paris, two-thirds of the Parisians, particularly those in the wealthier neighborhoods, had fled to the countryside and the south of France, in what is known as the exode dethe massive exodus of millions of people from the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, the north and east of France, fleeing after the German victory of the battle of Sedan 12—15 May Once the Occupation had begun, they started to return.

By July 7, the city government estimated the population had risen again to 1. At the beginning ofit fell again, because of air raids by the Allies, the arrest and deportation of Jews and foreigners, and the forced departure to factories in Germany of many young Frenchmen, as part of the Service du travail obligatoire STO"Obligatory Work Service".

Some saw the Germans as an easy source of money; others, as the Prefect of the Seine, Roger Langeron arrested on 23 Junecommented, "looked at them as if they were invisible or transparent.

The Party also asked that workers resume work in the armaments factories, which were now producing for the Germans. Many individual communists opposed the Nazis, but the ambivalent official attitude of the Party lasted until Operation Barbarossathe German attack on the Soviet Union on June 22, A curfew was in effect from nine in the evening until five in the morning; at night, the city went dark. Rationing of food, tobacco, coal and clothing was imposed from September Every year the supplies grew more scarce and the prices higher.

The French press and radio broadcast only German propaganda. Most Parisians, however, only expressed their anger and frustrations in private, while the police of Paris, under German control, received every day hundreds of anonymous denunciations by Parisians against other Parisians.

Paris in World War II - Wikipedia

Rationing and the Black Market[ edit ] Line outside a Paris bakery in spring The liberation did not end the food shortages. Imperial War Museums, U. Potatoes and leeks on sale in a Paris market. There was little else to buy. Spring Imperial War Museums, U. Finding food soon became the first preoccupation of the Parisians. The authorities of the German occupation transformed French industry and agriculture into a machine for serving Germany.

Shipments to Germany had first priority; what was left went to Paris and the rest of France. All of the trucks manufactured at the Citroen factory went directly to Germany. Later many of these trucks were cleverly sabotaged by the French workers, who recalibrated the dip sticks so that the trucks would run out of oil without notice.

The greatest share of shipments of meat, wheat, milk produce and other agricultural products also went to Germany. Products could be bought only upon presentation of coupons attributed to specific items and on the specific week in which they could be used.

Paris in World War II

Parisians and all the population of France were divided into seven categories depending upon their age, and allotted a certain amount of each product each month. A new bureaucracy, employing more than nine thousand city employees, with offices at all schools and the city hall of each arrondissement, was put into place to administer the program. The system resulted in long lines and frustrated hopes, since promised products often never appeared.

Thousands of Parisians regularly made the long journey by bicycle to the countryside, hoping to come back, with vegetables, fruit, eggs and other farm products. Leather shoes were replaced by shoes made of rubber or canvas raffia with wooden soles. A variety of ersatz or substitute products appeared, which were not exactly what they were called: The Germans had transferred the authority over the coal mines of northern France from Paris to their military headquarters in Brussels.

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The priority for the coal that did arrive in Paris was for the use in factories. Even with ration cards, adequate coal for heating was almost impossible to find. Supplies for normal heating needs were not restored until Producers and distributors of food and other scarce products set aside a portion of their goods for the black market, and used middle-men to sell them to customers.

Parisians bought cigarettes, meat, coffee, wine and other products which frequently neither the middle-man nor the customer had ever seen. Restaurants[ edit ] Paris restaurants were open but had to deal with strict regulations and shortages. Meat could only be served on certain days, and certain products, such as cream, coffee and fresh produce were extremely rare. Nonetheless, the restaurants found ways to serve their regular clients. For five hundred francs one could conquer a good pork chop, hidden under cabbage and served without the necessary tickets, along with a liter of Beaujolais and a real coffee; sometimes it was on the first floor at rue Dauphine, where you could listen to the BBC while sitting next to Picasso.

Luftwaffe officers on the Metro Bundesarchiv Horse-drawn coaches in front of the National Assembly, decorated with slogan: Due to the shortage of fuel, the number of automobiles on the Paris streets dropped frombefore the war to just under 4, Older means of transportation, such as the horse-drawn fiacre came back into service. Trucks and automobiles that did circulate often used gazogene, a poor-quality fuel carried in a tank on the roof, or coal gas or methane, extracted from the Paris sewers.

Three thousand five hundred buses had run on the Paris streets inbut only five hundred were still running in the autumn of Bicycle-taxis became popular, and their drivers charged a high tariff.

Bicycles became the means of transport for many Parisians, and their price soared; a used bicycle cost a month's salary. Georges Braque returned to Paris in autumn and quietly continued working. Pablo Picasso spent most of in a villa in Royannorth of Bordeaux.

He returned to Paris and resumed working in his studio on rue des Grands Augustins.

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He frequently received visitors at his studio, including Germans, some admiring and some suspicious. German treasurer officials opened Picasso's bank vault, where he stored his private art collection, searching for Jewish-owned art they could seize.

Picasso so confused them with his descriptions of ownership of the paintings that they left without taking anything.

TRUTH or MYTH: Latin Americans React to Stereotypes

He also persuaded them that the paintings in the adjoining vault, owned by Braque, were actually his own. Other "degenerate" artists, including Kandinsky and Henri Matissewho sent drawings up to Paris from his residence in Nice, were officially condemned but continued to sell their works in the back rooms of Paris galleries.

Nazi plunder One of the greatest art thefts in history took place in Paris during the Occupation, as the Nazis looted the art of Jewish collectors on a grand scale. The German Army was respectful of the Hague Conventions of and and refused to transfer the works in French museums out of the country, but the Nazi leaders were not so scrupulous.

On 30 JuneHitler ordered that all art works in France, public and private, should be "safeguarded". Many of the French wealthy Jewish families had sent their art works out of France before leaving the country, but others had left their art collections behind.

Accommodation in Paris: openings, closures, renovations - Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau

A new law decreed that those who had left France just before the war were no longer French citizens, and their property could be seized. The Gestapo began visiting bank vaults and empty residences, and collecting the works of art. The pieces left behind in the fifteen largest Jewish-owned art galleries in Paris were also collected, and transported in French police vans.

In September, a new organization, the Reichsleiter Rosenberg Taskforce Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg was created to catalog and store the art.

It was moved to the Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paumea building in the Tuileries Gardens used by the Louvre for temporary exhibits. More than four hundred crates of art works were brought to the Jeu de Paume by Luftwaffe personnel, unpacked and cataloged.

He selected twenty-seven paintings, including works by Rembrandt and Van Dyck owned by Edouard de Rothschildas well as stained glass windows and furniture intended for Carinhallthe luxurious hunting lodge he had built in the Schorfheide Forestin Germany.

The staff at the Jeu de Paume cataloged major collections. Between April and July4, cases of art works filling boxcars, were shipped from Paris to Germany. Look out for the popular record label-hosted Blip'n'Beat nights. Le Triptyque, rue Montmartre www.

Vacation Schedules for Paris Restaurants

Montmartre's Triptyque basement, run by an arts foundation, schedules everything from reggae and house to afrobeat and ''hiphop-schwing-pop". But where the former pair have unimaginative music policies and overbearing door policies the bouncers look as if they'd like to use their velvet ropes to string you upRex manages to be welcoming and unpretentious, and to inject variety into its timetable.

It speaks volumes about the Parisian bright young things for whom the main aim of a night out is to dress like a celebrity, hang out near celebrities and trick people into assuming that, yes, they too are celebrities!

A poseur night out in Paris is delightfully silly.

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Dress up well beyond the nines, take lots of money - and, whatever you do, don't mention the word "Eurotrash". Pink Paradise, rue de Ponthieu, 8e www. Glitzy "stripchic" bars are becoming the slightly surreal nightlife hotspots for the moneyed crowd, where mixed groups sip spirits and chat while pole-dancers gyrate before them.

Pink Paradise is the swankiest of the lot. An under-lit red corridor with video screens sunk into the floor leads from the entrance into a room awash with pink leopard skin, red velvet and chandeliers.

Don't even think about turning up unless you're dressed in Versace or Armani or something convincingly like it. VIP has no sign and is very hard to find. Attach yourself to a good-looking local crowd and you'll have an easier time charming the bouncer into showing you the way to the front door. Its vast New York loft-style interior makes a welcome change from so much ethnic fusion. Barfly has the longest bar in Paris it's made of blue stone and - unlike a lot of poseur boltholes - real atmosphere.

Best for live music Music is taken chin-strokingly seriously in Paris, and the way to find it is to follow your ears. World music is the best draw: Latin is big too, while blues, jazz and chanson are perfect matches for the city's inherent insouciance.

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What's more, French rock is making an unprecedented bid for critical approval. World There's no such thing as too much culture in France, and Paris has many catch-all cultural spaces where you can see anything from art exhibitions to theatre. The ageing Elvis copyist Johnny Hallyday who's actually Belgian remains their most successful star, and contemporary bands have been content to be lame imitations of US bands.