Latino is a term often used in the United States to refer to people with cultural ties to Latin The Census Bureau also explains that "[o]rigin can be viewed as the People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race. In a recent study, 79% of the Brazilian population identified themselves as. However, it is uncertain whether “Hispanic” will evolve to become a symbolic identity from Latin America will consider themselves Hispanic is an open question. and dating back to , the census category analogous to today's “ Hispanic” in the s, the Census Bureau used Spanish surname to identify people of. Her mother can follow her roots back to settlers from a post-Civil War Americans whose Spanish and/or Latin American ancestry date back Lisa Sanchez and her family consider themselves Americans of Spanish origin.
As a core issue in the Hispanic experience, language raises important questions about divided national loyalties and the cohesion of Hispanicity as a panethnic identity; about social integration and labor market prospects in an English-dominant society; and, more generally, about the terms of belonging in U. In this context, and independent from discussions of educational policy, bilingualism is an essential dimension of language shift with major implications for social integration.
To a casual observer, particularly in areas where Hispanics are highly concentrated, the ubiquity of Spanish—on storefronts, on election ballots, and in airports, for example—signals the emergence of a bilingual nation by default, if not by design. Although this may be the case on the streets of America, in fact the pervasiveness of Spanish-language use at home is a transitory phenomenon that largely reflects immigration patterns.
It is true that the vast majority of Hispanics born abroad—93 percent—speak some Spanish at home, compared with only 63 percent of those native born.
What those figures fail to convey, however, is that among remaining bilinguals Spanish fluency erodes rapidly over time and across generations. Unlike foreign-born young people, who have an opportunity to improve their linguistic skills as they progress through U. This reduces the labor market prospects of foreign-born, working-age Hispanics compared with whites or blacks, who are largely proficient in English.
Only one-third of foreign-born working-age Hispanics are fluent in English, compared with about 88 percent of their U. Men and women are about equally proficient in English, but notable differences occur across Hispanic subgroups.
Hispanic Identity Fades Across Generations as Immigrant Connections Fall Away
Roughly a quarter of Mexican immigrants claim fluency in English, compared with half of Cubans born abroad and even larger shares of island-born Puerto Ricans. These differences reflect mainly length of U. Variation in English fluency is minimal among U. The samples include individuals ages 25 to In these tabulations, persons who more The degree of Spanish retention among foreign-born Hispanics remains a subject of considerable controversy because of the presumption that bilingualism retards the acquisition of English-language skills.
The loyalty that many Spanish speakers especially Mexicans feel toward their native tongue diminishes across generations, especially beyond the second. A recent national survey of Hispanic immigrants revealed that 72 percent were Spanish dominant, 25 percent were bilingual, and a mere 4 percent were English dominant.
By the second generation, only 7 percent of adult Hispanics were Spanish dominant, and about 47 percent each were bilingual or English dominant. Among the third and later generations, not only did Spanish dominance disappear, but fewer than one-quarter were bilingual.
By the third generation, there was a complete reversal of these shares, with 4 percent speaking only Spanish at home, 12 percent using both languages, and 84 percent speaking only English.
The younger the immigrant at the time of arrival and the more educated, the greater is the facility in acquiring English-language skills. Nevertheless, there are strong indications that Hispanics are shifting from Spanish to English at an increasingly rapid pace.
The most compelling evidence is from data that record changes in language preferences over time. The Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study CILSwhich collected data over a year period for first- and second-generation Hispanic youths as they made their transition to adulthood, showed rapid linguistic assimilation, even among the groups most likely to retain Spanish: Mexicans living along the U.
Third-generation Hispanics, in particular, stressed the importance of repairing the breaks in the cultural chain that occurred when their own parents failed to keep the Spanish language alive at home. The following comments made to the panel were typical: What I speak, I learned in school, and I don't speak it well. My parents are fluent. I'm white-washed because I'm losing the culture. Now my Dad's mad at her because I don't speak any Spanish. I think they spoke Spanish amongst each other when they didn't want me to know what they were talking about.
Being around it, you learn. I don't speak it but I understand it. So, they know better. Hispanics both at home and abroad—may be an important part of the process by which Hispanicity is forged in the context of cultural shift see the example in Box BOX Example of Spanglish.
I don't feel bien. I'm just a strange more In sum, rapid linguistic assimilation among youths from all Hispanic subgroups and social classes points to a clear and inevitable decline in their use of, preference for, and therefore fluency in Spanish. Hence like other immigrant groups, the majority of third-generation Hispanics—the grandchildren of the present wave of immigrants—will be English monolinguals.
Latino Identity Declines Across Generations as Immigrant Ties Weaken
The only prominent exceptions to this trend are Dominicans, who maintain very close contact with their homeland. The experience of Mexican youths is most telling on this point: Increased awareness of the value of this linguistic and cultural resource could retard the process of language loss by promoting bilingualism with strong English proficiency, but not without explicit recognition that proficiency in two languages is an asset.
Hispanicity as an identity has its roots in U. Whether it evolves into an enduring panethnic identity will partly depend on whether social and political cohesion evolves among Hispanic subgroups. A better understanding of Hispanics' intergenerational change awaits the inclusion of questions on parental birthplace in the U.
A Quick Breakdown Of The Difference Between Hispanic, Latino And Spanish | HuffPost
Before knowledge about the Hispanic population was largely regional in scope because of the Census Bureau's reliance on objective indicators, such as Spanish surname, more But socially, and in popular use, there are signs that Hispanic connotes both an ethnic and a racial identity, particularly among second and later generation Hispanics.
If Hispanics successfully integrate into the societal mainstream, as earlier immigrant groups have done, then the former is likely to be true. Similarly, second-generation adults with Hispanic ancestry the U. By the third generation — a group made up of the U.
And by the fourth or higher generation U. Defining self-identified Hispanic and self-identified non-Hispanic This report explores the attitudes and experiences of two groups of adults. The first are those who are self-identified Hispanics.
Any survey respondent who says they are Hispanic is counted as Hispanic, and those who say they are not Hispanic are not counted as such. This practice has been in place on the census since for Hispanic identity and since for racial identity.
These findings emerge from two Pew Research Center national surveys that explored attitudes and experiences about Hispanic identity among two populations. The first survey, conducted Oct. The second is a first-of-its-kind national survey of U. It was offered in English and Spanish from Nov. Together, these two surveys provide a look at the identity experiences and views of U. Declining immigration, high intermarriage rates Immigration from Latin America played a central role in the U.
But by the s, U. And the Great Recession, 2 coupled with many other factors, significantly slowed the flow of new immigrants into the country, especially from Mexico. As a result, the U. Hispanic population is still growing, but at a rate nearly half of what it was over a decade ago as fewer immigrants arrive in the U.
Over the same period, the Latino intermarriage rate remained relatively high and changed little.
In both andLatino intermarried rates were higher than those for blacks or whites. A similar pattern is present among those who are married, according to the two surveys. But that share declines across the generations. These trends may have implications for the shape of Hispanic identity today. With so many U. These trends also have implications for the future of Hispanic identity in the U. Lower immigration levels than in the past and continued high intermarriage rates may combine to produce a growing number of U.
And even among those who do self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, those in the second and third or higher generations may see their identity as more tied to the U. As a result, even estimates of the number of Americans who self-identify as Hispanic could be lower than currently projected. But these projections assume that many current trends, including Hispanic self-identity trends, will continue. What is Hispanic identity?
When it comes to describing themselves and what makes someone Hispanic, there is some consensus across self-identified Hispanics. However, not all Hispanics agree, with views often linked to immigrant generation. The immigrant experience is an important part of the U. Roughly four-in-ten self-identified U. Terms used most often to describe identity The terms that self-identified Hispanics use to describe themselves can provide a direct look at their views of identity and the link to their countries of birth or family origin.
Third or higher generation Latinos were born in the U. Another measure of identity is how much Hispanics feel a common identity with other Americans.
Hispanics are divided on this question: But this finding masks large differences across the generations. Does speaking Spanish or having a Spanish last name make one Hispanic?
Speaking Spanish is a characteristic often linked to Latino identity. This came up during a debate in the presidential campaignwhen Republican candidate U. Another characteristic that for some is seen as important to Hispanic identity is having a Spanish last name. Not all Americans with Hispanic ancestry self-identify as Hispanic Racial and ethnic identity in the U.
You are what you say you are. This is how race and ethnicity is measured in government surveysas well as in surveys by Pew Research Center and other research groups. As a result, there are some Americans who say they have Hispanic ancestry but do not consider themselves Hispanic.