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Subject-based practical skills The programme aims to help students with the following practical skills: Academic writing IT-based information retrieval and processing Presentational skills Independent study skills and research techniques Reflexive learning The programme will encourage students to: Write concisely and with clarity.
Effectively structure and communicate ideas oral and written. Explore and assess a variety of sources for research purposes.
Work to deadlines and high academic standards. Assess the validity and cogency of arguments. Make judgements involving complex factors.
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Develop an awareness of the ethical complexity of representational practices. Question the nature of social and cultural constructs. The fees below are per academic year. Please note that fees go up each year. Acting ethically gives rise to a simpler life and a clear conscience, which are a sound basis for meditation practice.
Meditation clarifies and concentrates the mind in preparation for the third training: The real aim of all Buddhist practice is to understand the true nature of our lives and experience. Types of Meditation The four types of meditation A useful way of understanding the diversity of meditation practices is to think of the different types of meditation.
These practices are known as: Concentrative Receptive Reflective This isn't a traditional list - it comes from modern meditation teachers who draw on more than one Asian Buddhist tradition.
Neither are there hard and fast distinctions. A particular meditation practice usually includes elements of all four approaches but with the emphasis on one particular aspect. Connected with meditation, but not quite the same as it, is the practice of mindfulness. This, too, is an essential part of Buddhist practice and means becoming more fully aware of what one is experiencing in all aspects of one's life.
Mindfulness always plays a part in meditation, but meditation, in the sense of setting out to become more and more concentrated, is not necessarily a part of mindfulness.
Concentrative If you focus your attention on an object it gradually becomes calmer and more concentrated.
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In principle, any object will do - a sound, a visual image such as a candle flame, or a physical sensation. In the tantric Buddhism of Tibet and elsewhere, meditators visualise complex images of Buddha forms and recite sacred sounds or mantras in fact these images and sounds have significance beyond simply being objects of concentration. But the most common and basic object of concentrative meditation is to focus on the naturally calming physical process of the breath.
In the 'mindfulness of breathing', one settles the mind through attending to the sensations of breathing. There are many variations on how this is done. Here is a common version of the practice: In the first stage of the practice you follow the breath as it enters and leaves the body and count after the out-breath.Self-Hypnosis Meditation: Become a Relationship Magnet
After the first breath you count 'two', and so on up to ten and then start again from one. In the second stage the count comes before the in-breath.
In the third stage you stop counting and attend to the sensations of the breath entering and leaving the body. In the fourth stage you focus your attention on the tip of your nose where the breath first comes into contact with the skin. Concentrative meditation practices can lead you into deeper and deeper states of absorption known as dhyana in Buddhism.
Generative An example of a 'generative' practice is the 'development of loving kindness' meditation metta bhavana. This helps the person meditating to develop an attitude of loving kindness using memory, imagination and awareness of bodily sensations. In the first stage you feel metta for yourself with the help of an image like golden light or phrases such as 'may I be well and happy, may I progress.
In the third stage metta is directed towards someone you do not particularly like or dislike. In the fourth stage it is directed towards someone you actually dislike. In the last stage, you feel metta for all four people at once - yourself, the friend, the neutral person and the enemy.
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Then you extend the feeling of love from your heart to everyone in the world, to all beings everywhere. Scripture on this practice says: With goodwill for the entire cosmos cultivate a limitless heart. This practice is aimed at cultivating compassion. Receptive In the mindfulness of breathing or the metta bhavana meditation practice, a balance needs to be struck between consciously guiding attention and being receptive to whatever experience is arising. This attitude of open receptive attention is the emphasis of the receptive type of meditation practice.
Sometimes such practices are simply concerned with being mindful. In zazen or 'just sitting' practice from the Japanese Zen tradition, one sits calmly, aware of what is happening in one's experience without judging, fantasising or trying to change things.
A similar practice in Tibetan tradition is dzogchen. In both cases, the meditator sits with their eyes open. Usually people close their eyes to meditate. Zazen and dzogchen practices gain depth from the underlying belief in the significance of being in the present moment.
Reflective Reflective meditation involves repeatedly turning your attention to a theme but being open to whatever arises from the experience. Reflective practices in Buddhism include meditations on impermanence and interconnectedness as well as faith enhancing practices such as meditation on the qualities of the Buddha.
Preparation and posture The classical meditation position is 'the lotus position'. This involves sitting cross-legged with the left foot on top of the right thigh and the right foot on top of the left thigh. If you can't manage that it is still good to sit on the floor either kneeling or cross-legged with enough support to have both knees on the ground and the back erect without having to strain. Sitting quietly in a chair is perfectly acceptable.