Latin America’s lost histories revealed in modern DNA | Science | AAAS
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Aided by sophisticated statistics and worldwide genetic databases, they can tease apart ancestry and population mixing with more nuance than ever before. The results, reported at a meeting here this week and in a preprint, tell stories of Latin America that have been largely forgotten or were never recorded in historical documents.
From the immigration of enslaved Filipinos to that of formerly Jewish families forbidden to travel to the colonies, hidden histories are emerging. Starting in the 19th century, many Chinese immigrants moved to Mexico to construct railroads in the country's northern states. Growing up near the U. But when he searched a database of Mexican genomes—initially assembled for biomedical studies—and sought genetic variants more common in Asian populations, he found a surprise. Some people from northern Mexico did have significant Asian ancestry, but they weren't the only ones.
And when he compared their genomes to those of people in Asia today, he found that they were most closely related to populations from the Philippines and Indonesia. They learned from historians who study ship manifests and other trade documents that during the 16th and 17th centuries, Spanish galleons sailed between Manila and the port of Acapulco in Guerrero, carrying goods and people, including enslaved Asians.
Although historians knew of this transpacific slave trade, the origins of its victims were lost. Other data also suggest a strong African presence in colonial Mexico.
Bioarchaeologist Corey Ragsdale of Southern Illinois University in Edwardsville and his colleagues examined skeletons for dental and cranial traits that tend to be more common among Africans. She's also found significant Asian ancestry in some of her volunteers, likely an echo of communities once formed by enslaved Africans and Asians on the Pacific coast.
During the European colonization of the western hemisphere, most of the native population died, mainly by disease. In what has come to be known as the Columbian exchangediseases such as smallpox and measles decimated populations with no immunity. The conquerors and colonists of Latin America also had a major impact on the population of Latin America.
The Spanish conquistadors committed savage acts of violence against the natives.
History of Latin America
Las Casas claimed that the Spaniards made the natives work day and night in mines and would "test the sharpness of their blades"  on the natives.
Las Casas estimated that around three million natives died from war, slavery, and overworking. When talking about the cruelty, Las Casas said "Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it. The Spanish even went as far as burning the Maya Codices like books.
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These codices contained information about astrology, religion, Gods, and rituals. Colonial-era Religion[ edit ] Traveling to the New World[ edit ] The Spanish Crown regulated immigration to its overseas colonies, with travelers required to register with the House of Trade in Seville. Since the crown wished to exclude anyone who was non-Christian Jews, crypto-Jewsand Muslims passing as Christian, travelers' backgrounds were vetted.
The ability to regulate the flow of people enabled the Spanish Crown to keep a grip on the religious purity of its overseas empire. The Spanish Crown was rigorous in their attempt to allow only Christians passage to the New World and required proof of religion by way of personal testimonies. Specific examples of individuals dealing with the Crown allow for an understanding of how religion affected passage into the New World.
Francisca de Figueroa, an African-Iberian woman seeking entrance into the Americas, petitioned the Spanish Crown in in order to gain a license to sail to Cartagena. I order you to allow passage to the Province of Cartagena for Francisca de Figueroa Individuals had to work within the guidelines of Christianity in order to appeal to the Crown and be granted access to travel. Religion in Latin America[ edit ] Once in the New World, religion was still a prevalent issue which had to be considered in everyday life.
Many of the laws were based in religious beliefs and traditions and often these laws clashed with the many other cultures throughout colonial Latin America. One of the central clashes was between African and Iberian cultures; this difference in culture resulted in the aggressive prosecution of witches, both African and Iberian, throughout Latin America.
A specific example, the trial of Paula de Eguiluzshows how an appeal to Christianity can help to lessen punishment even in the case of a witch trial. Paula de Eguiluz was a woman of African descent who was born in Santo Domingo and grew up as a slave, sometime in her youth she learned the trade of witches and was publicly known to be a sorceress.
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- Latin America’s lost histories revealed in modern DNA
There needed to be appeals to Christianity and announcements of faith if an individual hoped to lessen the sentence. Learning quickly, Paula correctly "recited the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, the Salve Regina, and the Ten Commandments" before the second hearing of her trial.
Finally, in the third hearing of the trial Paula ended her testimony by "ask[ing] Our Lord to forgive [me] for these dreadful sins and errors and requests The Spanish Crown placed a high importance on the preservation of Christianity in Latin America, this preservation of Christianity allowed colonialism to rule Latin America for over three hundred years.
Latin American wars of independence Countries in Latin America by date of independence Following the model of the American and French revolutions, most of Latin America achieved its independence by Independence destroyed the old common market that existed under the Spanish Empire after the Bourbon Reforms and created an increased dependence on the financial investment provided by nations which had already begun to industrialize ; therefore, Western European powers, in particular Great Britain and France, and the United States began to play major roles, since the region became economically dependent on these nations.
Independence also created a new, self-consciously "Latin American" ruling class and intelligentsia which at times avoided Spanish and Portuguese models in their quest to reshape their societies. This elite looked towards other Catholic European models—in particular France—for a new Latin American culture, but did not seek input from indigenous peoples.
The failed efforts in Spanish America to keep together most of the initial large states that emerged from independence— Gran Colombiathe Federal Republic of Central America  and the United Provinces of South America —resulted a number of domestic and interstate conflicts, which plagued the new countries. Brazil, in contrast to its Hispanic neighbors, remained a united monarchy and avoided the problem of civil and interstate wars.
Domestic wars were often fights between federalists and centrists who ended up asserted themselves through the military repression of their opponents at the expense of civilian political life. The new nations inherited the cultural diversity of the colonial era and strived to create a new identity based around the shared European Spanish or Portuguese language and culture.
Within each country, however, there were cultural and class divisions that created tension and hurt national unity. Map of disputed territories in Latin America For the next few decades there was a long process to create a sense of nationality. Most of the new national borders were created around the often centuries-old audiencia jurisdictions or the Bourbon intendancieswhich had become areas of political identity. In many areas the borders were unstable, since the new states fought wars with each other to gain access to resources, especially in the second half of the nineteenth century.
The more important conflicts were the Paraguayan War —70; also known as the War of the Triple Alliance and the War of the Pacific — As a result, Paraguay suffered a demographic collapse: Chile gained control of saltpeter -rich areas, previously controlled by Peru and Bolivia, and Bolivia became a land-locked nation.
By mid-century the region also confronted a growing United States, seeking to expand on the North American continent and extend its influence in the hemisphere.