# Radiocarbon dating calendar years to 2020

### WikiJournal of Science/Radiocarbon dating - Wikiversity

Radiocarbon dating measurements produce ages in "radiocarbon years", which must be converted to calendar ages by a process called calibration. Calibration. The radiocarbon ages indicated here are not directly equivalent to calender years. Transform the radiocarbon ages into calendar dates using the calibration program CALIB (you Tanki Flip, Arcidae Shell, Layer 5, ± 50 Conventional ages cannot be directly translated into calendar years; this requires a further step. ANNOUNCEMENTS. Upcoming Meetings & Events. May MoDIM continues the year-old tradition of international meetings dedicated to radiocarbon and luminescence dating of archaeological lime beljournalist.info beljournalist.info, Mexico.

This has now been done for Bristlecone Pines in the U. A and waterlogged Oaks in Ireland and Germany, and Kauri in New Zealand to provide records extending back over the last 14, years.

For older periods we are able to use other records of with idependent age control to tell us about how radiocarbon changed in the past. Calibration curves The information from measurements on tree rings and other samples of known age including speleothems, marine corals and samples from sedimentary records with independent dating are all compiled into calibration curves by the IntCal group. For more detail see the OxCal manual. How radiocarbon calibration works Calibration of radiocarbon determinations is in principle very simple.

If you have a radiocarbon measurement on a sample, you can try to find a tree ring with the same proportion of radiocarbon. Since the calendar age of the tree rings is known, this then tells you the age of your sample.

In practice this is complicated by two factors: The pair of blue curves show the radiocarbon measurements on the tree rings plus and minus one standard deviation and the red curve on the left indicates the radiocarbon concentration in the sample.

The grey histogram shows possible ages for the sample the higher the histogram the more likely that age is. The results of calibration are often given as an age range.

### Calibration of radiocarbon dates - Wikipedia

The graph to the right shows the part of the INTCAL13 calibration curve from BP to BP, a range in which there are significant departures from a linear relationship between radiocarbon age and calendar age. In places where the calibration curve is steep, and does not change direction, as in example t1 in blue on the graph to the right, the resulting calendar year range is quite narrow.

Where the curve varies significantly both up and down, a single radiocarbon date range may produce two or more separate calendar year ranges. Example t2, in red on the graph, shows this situation: A third possibility is that the curve is flat for some range of calendar dates; in this case, illustrated by t3, in green on the graph, a range of about 30 radiocarbon years, from BP to BP, results in a calendar year range of about a century, from BP to BP.

However, this method does not make use of the assumption that the original radiocarbon age range is a normally distributed variable: Deriving a calendar year range by means of intercepts does not take this into account. This has to be done by numerical methods rather than by a formula because the calibration curve is not describable as a formula.

## Radiocarbon dating

These can be accessed online; they allow the user to enter a date range at one standard deviation confidence for the radiocarbon ages, select a calibration curve, and produce probabilistic output both as tabular data and in graphical form. The curve selected is the northern hemisphere INTCAL13 curve, part of which is shown in the output; the vertical width of the curve corresponds to the width of the standard error in the calibration curve at that point. A normal distribution is shown at left; this is the input data, in radiocarbon years.