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InFord Foundation funded Licklider to analyze how libraries could be improved with technology. Almost a decade later, his book entitled "Libraries of the Future" included his vision.
He wanted to create a system that would use computers and networks so human knowledge would be accessible for human needs and feedback would be automatic for machine purposes. This system contained three components, the corpus of knowledge, the question, and the answer.
Digital library - Wikipedia
Licklider called it a procognitive system. By the s, the success of these endeavors resulted in OPAC replacing the traditional card catalog in many academic, public and special libraries. This permitted libraries to undertake additional rewarding co-operative efforts to support resource sharing and expand access to library materials beyond an individual library. Successful research proposals came from six U. The term virtual library was initially used interchangeably with digital library, but is now primarily used for libraries that are virtual in other senses such as libraries which aggregate distributed content.
In the early days of digital libraries, there was discussion of the similarities and differences among the terms digital, virtual, and electronic. It should also be noted that not all electronic content is in digital data format. The term hybrid library is sometimes used for libraries that have both physical collections and electronic collections.
For example, American Memory is a digital library within the Library of Congress. Some important digital libraries also serve as long term archives, such as arXiv and the Internet Archive.
Others, such as the Digital Public Library of Americaseek to make digital information from various institutions widely accessible online.
Many of these repositories are made available to the general public with few restrictions, in accordance with the goals of open accessin contrast to the publication of research in commercial journals, where the publishers often limit access rights. Institutional, truly free, and corporate repositories are sometimes referred to as digital libraries.
Institutional repository software is designed for archiving, organizing, and searching a library's content. Traditionally, archives are defined as: Containing primary sources of information typically letters and papers directly produced by an individual or organization rather than the secondary sources found in a library books, periodicals, etc.
Having their contents organized in groups rather than individual items. The technology used to create digital libraries is even more revolutionary for archives since it breaks down the second and third of these general rules.
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In other words, "digital archives" or "online archives" will still generally contain primary sources, but they are likely to be described individually rather than or in addition to in groups or collections.
Further, because they are digital, their contents are easily reproducible and may indeed have been reproduced from elsewhere. The Oxford Text Archive is generally considered to be the oldest digital archive of academic physical primary source materials. Archives differ from libraries in the nature of the materials held. Libraries collect individual published books and serials, or bounded sets of individual items.
The books and journals held by libraries are not unique, since multiple copies exist and any given copy will generally prove as satisfactory as any other copy. The material in archives and manuscript libraries are "the unique records of corporate bodies and the papers of individuals and families".
The fundamental characteristic of archives resides in their hierarchical organization expressing the context by means of the archival bond. Archival descriptions are the fundamental means to describe, understand, retrieve and access archival material.
At the digital level, archival descriptions are usually encoded by means of the Encoded Archival Description XML format. The EAD is a standardized electronic representation of archival description which makes it possible to provide union access to detailed archival descriptions and resources in repositories distributed throughout the world.
NESTOR is based on the idea of expressing the hierarchical relationships between objects through the inclusion property between sets, in contrast to the binary relation between nodes exploited by the tree.
NESTOR has been used to formally extend the 5S model to define a digital archive as a specific case of digital library able to take into consideration the peculiar features of archives. Features of digital libraries[ edit ] The advantages of digital libraries as a means of easily and rapidly accessing books, archives and images of various types are now widely recognized by commercial interests and public bodies alike.
A physical library must spend large sums of money paying for staff, book maintenance, rent, and additional books. Digital libraries may reduce or, in some instances, do away with these fees. Both types of library require cataloging input to allow users to locate and retrieve material. Digital libraries may be more willing to adopt innovations in technology providing users with improvements in electronic and audio book technology as well as presenting new forms of communication such as wikis and blogs; conventional libraries may consider that providing online access to their OP AC catalog is sufficient.
An important advantage to digital conversion is increased accessibility to users. They also increase availability to individuals who may not be traditional patrons of a library, due to geographic location or organizational affiliation.
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The user of a digital library need not to go to the library physically; people from all over the world can gain access to the same information, as long as an Internet connection is available. The same resources can be used simultaneously by a number of institutions and patrons. This may not be the case for copyrighted material: The user is able to use any search term word, phrase, title, name, subject to search the entire collection.
Digital libraries can provide very user-friendly interfaces, giving click able access to its resources. Digitization is not a long-term preservation solution for physical collections, but does succeed in providing access copies for materials that would otherwise fall to degradation from repeated use.
Digitized collections and born-digital objects pose many preservation and conservation concerns that analog materials do not. Please see the following "Problems" section of this page for examples. Whereas traditional libraries are limited by storage space, digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain them and media storage technologies are more affordable than ever before.
Certain characteristics of objects, primarily the quality of images, may be improved. Digitization can enhance legibility and remove visible flaws such as stains and discoloration.
Software[ edit ] There are a number of software packages for use in general digital libraries, for notable ones see Digital library software. Institutional repository software, which focuses primarily on ingest, preservation and access of locally produced documents, particularly locally produced academic outputs, can be found in Institutional repository software.
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This software may be proprietary, as is the case with the Library of Congress which uses Digiboard and CTS to manage digital content. These are referred to as semantic digital libraries.
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