Dating the sennacherib campaign to judah

dating the sennacherib campaign to judah

Sennacherib's campaign in Judah Date, BCE Kingdom of Judah. stating that "in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah did Sennacherib king of Assyria . accounts concerning the campaign to Judah with other Assyrian records. The rulers of Ekron, Gaza and King Hezekiah of Judah balked. The Assyrians describe Sennacherib's third campaign in the Annals of.

However, Sennacherib did not breach the city, [28] and Hezekiah remained on his throne as a vassal ruler. The Elamite king fled to the mountains and Sennacherib plundered his kingdom, but when he withdrew the Elamites returned to Babylon and put another rebel leader, Mushezib-Mardukon the Babylonian throne.

The Assyrian empire was divided into provinces, each provincial governor being responsible for matters such as the maintenance of roads and public buildings, and for the implementation of administrative policy.

One major element of that policy was the massive deportation and redistribution of populations, which aimed to punish, prevent rebellion, and repopulate depopulated areas in order to maintain food production in the empire. As many as 4. It comprised at least 80 rooms, many of which were lined with sculpture.


A large number of cuneiform tablets were found in the palace. The solid foundation was made out of limestone blocks and mud bricks; it was 22 metres 72 feet tall. The walls on top, made out of mud brick, were an additional 20 metres 66 feet tall. Some of the principal doorways were flanked by colossal stone door figures weighing up to 30, kilograms 30 t ; they included many winged lions or bulls with a man's head.

These were transported 50 kilometres 31 miles from quarries at Balatai and they had to be lifted up 20 metres 66 feet once they arrived at the site, presumably by a ramp. There are also 3, metres 9, feet of stone panels carved in bas-relief, that include pictorial records documenting every construction step including carving the statues and transporting them on a barge.

One picture shows 44 men towing a colossal statue.

dating the sennacherib campaign to judah

The carving shows three men directing the operation while standing on the Colossus. According to the Bible all these events occurred in the same time 2Kings According to Assyrian annals3, the city of Ahsdod was captured by Sargon II during his 10th campaign and Lachish was taken by Sennacherib during his 3rd campaign in Judea, but first paradox, if Sennacherib gives many details of his 3rd military campaign in Judea he never mentions Lachish4: In my third campaign I marched against Hatti.

Luli, king of Sidon, whom the terror-inspiring glamor of my lordship had overwhelmed, fled far overseas and perished. In the continuation of my campaign I besieged Beth-Dagon, Joppa, Banai-Barqa, Azuru, cities belonging to Sidqia who did not bow to my feet quickly enough ; I conquered them and carried their spoils away.

Upon a trust -inspiring oracle given by Ashur, my lord, I fought with them and inflicted a defeat upon them. I besieged Eltekeh and Tinmah Ta-am-na-aconquered them and carried their spoils away.

I assaulted Ekron and killed the officials and patricians who had committed the crime and hung their bodies on poles surrounding the city. The common citizens who were guilty of minor crimes, I considered prisoners of war. The rest of them, those who were not accused of crimes and misbehavior, I released.

I made Padi, their king, come from Jerusalem Ur-sa-li-im-mu and set him as their lord on the throne, imposing upon him the tribute due to me as overlord. As to Hezekiah, the Jew, he did not submit to my yoke, I laid siege to 46 of his strong cities, walled forts and to the countless small villages in their vicinity, and conquered them by means of well- stamped earth- ramps, and battering-rams brought thus near to the walls combined with the attack by foot soldiers, using mines, breeches as well as sapper work.

I drove out of thempeople, young and old, male and female, horses, mules, donkeys, camels, big and small cattle beyond counting, and considered them booty. Himself Hezekiah I made a prisoner in Jerusalem, his royal residence, like a bird in a cage.

I surrounded him with earthwork in order to molest those who were leaving his city's gate. Biblica 80 pp. Tel Aviv 4 pp. Princeton University Press pp. Hezekiah himself, whom the terror-inspiring splendor of my lordship had overwhelmed and whose irregular and elite troops which he had brought into Jerusalem, his royal residence, in order to strengthen ithad deserted him, did send me, later, to Nineveh, my lordly city, together with 30 talents of gold, talents of silver, precious stones, antimony, large cuts of red stone, couches inlaid with ivory, pedestal-chairs inlaid with ivory, elephant-hides, ebony-wood, boxwood and all kinds of valuable treasures, his own daughters, concubines, male and female musicians.

In order to deliver the tribute and to do obeisance as a slave he sent his personal messenger. According to the two stelae of Kawa5, after the death of Shabaka, his successor Shabataka immediately summoned an army which he placed under the command of his brother Taharqa, a young son of Piye aged 20, to repel Assyrian attack which was threatening. In addition, Taharqa states explicitly on these stelae that he was designated as heir by Shabataka despite his other brothers and all children.

The campaign of Sennacherib thus corresponding to the 1st year of Shabataka, which is anchored on Sennacherib's 3rd campaign. One reads7 along the lines I destroyed the land of K[aral]la, the land of "urda, the city of Ki[! Iamani, its king, feared [my weapons] and He fled to the region of the land of Melu""a Nubia and lived there stealthfully literally: The Inscriptions London Ed. Oxford University Press pp. The two Assyrian kings had to campaign in common, but Sennacherib had to make engraved his 3rd campaign only when he was king, after the death of his father, and not during his co-regency which begun in BCE.

Some authors also noted an anomaly underlined on line 44 of the inscription: They counted them as booty, then one would expect more logically from Sargon the sentence: I have counted them as booty with the co-regency anomaly disappears.

dating the sennacherib campaign to judah

As the co-regency between Sargon and Sennacherib is not taken into account, some Egyptologists8 have suggested the following explanation: This amazing assumption allows to begin the reign of Shabataka in BCE instead ofassuming also a co-regency not attested with Shabaka, his predecessor. We see all this is hardly likely, because the chronological order of the inscription is obvious, moreover, that dating is in perfect agreement with the 10 years of co-regency of Sennacherib.

On the relief carved9 below representing the siege of Lachish, the central element is the king seated on his throne clearly identified by his tiara and scepter and facing the crown prince.

The crown prince was always represented without exception on panels or stelae as tall as the king and wearing a diadem with two ribbons behind the head10, facing the king wearing the tiara11, who also bore the two ribbons behind the head: The University of Chicago Press pp. Power-dressing at the Assyrian Court in: When a character next to a king is shown the same size, with a tiara, it is another king and when he is without tiara but with the regalia it is a co-regent, like King Darius and Xerxes coregent behind him below.

These representations do not include any exception. In addition, probably to avoid ambiguity with a senior official, the co-regent is always represented as a replica of the king with some royal attributes: Such representations opposite figure are found in the palace of Khorsabad, where the co-regent Sennacherib is facing king Sargon It is easy to see that this representation looks the same as the siege of Lachish, that is confirmed by chronology.

On the relief carved of Lachish, the co-regent facing the king, seated on the throne, can not be Ardu-Mulissu, called Adrammelech in Isaiah Therefore the king sat on the throne at Lachish is king Sargon facing Sennacherib. On the relief of the siege of Lachish, Sennacherib is on the left and Sargon is on the right as on the relief in the palace of Khorsabad The epigraph of four lines over Sennacherib15 in a label confirms this identification because it is presented as co-regent MAN and not as king LUGAL and the other epigraph of three lines over the tent of Sennacherib describes him as king afterward: Epigraph over Sennacherib mdPAP.

Epigraph over the tent of Sennacherib za-ra-tum Tent! Sennacherib could not bear the title of king during Sargon's lifetime, because the latter was considered to be "without rival", but only the title of viceroy double or replica of the king.

In addition, the term -ma meaning "and" connects one who sits to the one passing booty reviewed who was king Sargon.

Dating the Sennacherib's Campaign to Judah | Gerard GERTOUX -

In the biblical text the military campaigns of Sennacherib and Sargon are clearly identified in parallel and dated BCE 2Kings When Sennacherib comes to Jerusalem, it is stated: After Hezekiah had paid a tribute of talents of silver and 30 talents of gold, Sennacherib sent his commander tartanuchief officer rab-sha-resh and cupbearer rab-shaqu for accepting his surrender.

During the same time Sargon sent his commander tartanu to Ashdod before seizing it. The annals of Sargon17 give the following details: I besieged and conquered the cities Ashdod and Gath Then to the rulers of Palestine, Judah, Edom, Moab and those who live on islands and bring tribute and gifts to my lord Ashur According to Sennacherib's annals: In my third campaign As to Hezekiah, the Jew, he did not submit to my yoke, I laid siege to 46 of his strong cities Hezekiah himself, whom the terror-inspiring splendor of my lordship had overwhelmed and whose irregular and elite troops which he had brought into Jerusalem, his royal residence, in order to strengthen ithad deserted him, 14 B.

The presence of the kings of Egypt and king of Ethiopia has to be located in BCE or before when several pharaohs actually ruled in parallel with the Theban priests The tribute paid by Hezekiah during the Sennacherib's 3rd campaign is almost identical to that of the biblical text 2 Kings However a tribute from Judah is also perceived by Sargon, because in a letter from a governor to Sargon we read: I have received 45 horses [ An inscription of Sargon mentions his campaign against Hezekiah, king of Judah, along with the taking of Ekron and Azeqah19 near Lachish Jeremiah But as the taking of Lachish and Jerusalem by Sennacherib are currently dated in BCE that implies a hypothetical second campaign, 11 years later, and leads to a chronological impossibility20, unless the date is BCE.

Similarly, the attempted alliance between Merodach-baladan and Hezekiah is plausible only in BCE because in or in BCE the Babylonian king if he reigned was in a position of weakness the only support mentioned in neo-Babylonian chronicles is that of king of Elam and Hezekiah had no interest to ally with him, whereas in BCE Merodachbaladan was in a position of strength and the purpose of his alliance with Hezekiah, which miraculously pushed Sennacherib, was to counterbalance Assyrian influence.

Sargon's Chronicle supports this reconstruction because the king was perpetually at war against Merodach-Baladan except in BCE because of his campaign to Judea and also in BCE, but for no apparent reason From the accession ye[ar of] Merodach-baladan until the 10th year [Assyria] was belligerent towards Merodach-baladan.

The 12th year of Merodach-baladan: Sargon went down [to Akkad] and did battle against [Merodach- bala]dan. Merodach-baladan [retreated] before [him] and fled to Elam. For 12 years [Merodach- balad]an ruled Babylon. Sargon ascended the throne in Babylon When he withdrew he Sennacherib put Bel-ibni on the throne in Babylon. The 1st year of Bel-ibni [ BCE]: Sennacherib ravaged Hirimma and Hararatum. The 3rd year of Bel-ibni: Sennacherib went down to Akkad and plundered Akkad. He led away to Assyria Bel-ibni and his officers.

For 3 years Bel-ibni ruled Babylon. After him reigned a blind man called Anysis, of the town of that name. In his reign Egypt was invaded by Sabacos king of Ethiopia and a great army of Ethiopians The next king was the priest of Hephaestus whose name was Sethos. He despised and had no regard for the warrior Egyptians, thinking he would never need them; besides other wise dishonoring them, he took away the chosen lands which had been given to them, twelve fields to each man, in the reign of former kings.

So when presently king Sennacherib came against Egypt, with a great force of 18 K. Aris and Phillips pp. A Skeleton without Flesh? Sennacherib's Campaign as a Case-Study; E. Sennacherib's Campaign against Judah as a Case Study in: