The Mohammedan system of theology - Wikisource, the free online library
If then, in the administration of civil justice, and under the obscurity of You will find some such as will prognosticate your date, and tell you that, after your each radical humour and passion, Edition: current; Page:  wrought upon be to Vitruvius, to Seneca's natural questions, to Mela, Celsus, Pliny, or Solinus. In the providential administration of the world, ac- cording to the best .. dental: some chapters are dated from Mecca, others from Medina, been acknowledged by enemies as well as friends, such as Celsus, Porphyry, Tacitus, and also that of Beza, in the public library of the University at Cambridge. The celsus library in ephesus dating from adm. Celsus, in the honour of whom the library was originally built, had been consul in 92 AD where he was in .
And among those who appeared in the several shapes of birds, he there saw a cock of colour as white as snow, and of so prodigious a bigness, that his feet standing upon the first heaven, his head reached up to the second, which was at the distance of five hundred years' journey from it, according to the rate we usually travel here on earth. But others among them, as they relate this matter from their prophet, hyper- bolize much higher concerning it, telling us that the head of this cock reacheth up through all the seven heavens, as far as the throne of God, which is above seven times higher; and in the description of him say, that his wings are all over decked with carbuncles and pearls, and that he extends the one of them to the east, and the other to the west, at a dis- tance proportionable to his height.
Concerning all these the Impostor tells us, the angel Gabriel informed him, that they were angels which did from thence intercede with God for all living creatures on the earth. But when the day of judg- ment draws near, then God shall command him to draw in his wings and crow no more, which shall be a sign that that day is at hand, to all that are in heaven and earth, except men and fairies, who being afore deaf to his crowing, shall not then be sensible of his silence from it.
All this stuff of the cock Abdallah helped Mahomet to, out of the Talmudists. For it is all borrowed from them with some little variation only, to make it look not totally the same. For in the tract, Bava Bathra, of the Babylonish Talmud, we have a story of such a prodigious bird, called Ziz, which standing with his feet upon the earth, reacheth up unto the heavens with his head, and with the spreading of his wings darkeneth the whole orb of the sun, and causeth a total eclipse thereof.
And the Chaldee Paraphrast on Job also tells us of him, and of his crowing every morning before the Lord, and that God giveth him wis- dom for this purpose. What is farther said of this bird of the Talmudists, may be seen in Buxtorf 's Synagoga Judaica, cap.
From this first heaven, the Impostor tells us, he ascended up into the second, which was at the distance of five hundred years' journey above it, and this he makes to be the distance of every one of the seven heavens each above the other.
Here the gates being opened unto him, as in the first heaven, at his entrance he met Noah, who rejoicing much at the sight of him, recommended himself to his prayers. In this heaven which was all made of pure gold, the Impostor tells us he saw twice as many angels as in the former, and among them one of a prodigious greatness. For his feet being placed on this second heaven, his head reached to the third.
And there he saw a vast many more angels than in the former heaven, and among them another great one of so prodigious a size, that the distance between his two eyes was as much as seventy thousand days' journey, according to our rate of tra- velling here on earth. But here Mahomet was out in his ma- thematics; for the distance between a man's eyes being in proportion to his height but as one to seventy-two, according to this rate, the height of this angel must have been near fourteen thousand years' journey, which is four times as much as the height of all his seven heavens together, and therefore LIFE OF MOHAMMED.
From hence he ascended up into the sixth heaven, which was all of carbuncle, where he found John the Baptist, who recommended himself to his prayers. And here he also saw the number of angels much increased beyond what he had seen in any of the former heavens.
But it was his usage, through the whole scene of his imposture, thus to flatter the Christians on all occasions. Here he saith, he found a much greater number of angels than in all the other heavens besides, and among them one extraordinary angel having seventy thousand heads, and in every head seventy thousand tongues, and every tongue uttering seventy thousand distinct voices at the same time, with which he continued day and night incessantly praising God.
Mohammed perceived affairs taking such a turn at Mecca, that longer continu- ance there would be perilous in the extreme: Being pursued by the Koreish, and accompanied only by Abu-beker, he sought refuge in a cave, where a circumstance that transpired strongly displays his enthusiasm: The fugitives, on their road to Medina, were overtaken by a party of the Koreish, but redeemed themselves by prayers and promises from their hands.
After several narrow escapes, they arrived at the place of their destination, where Ali, having adjusted his affairs at Mecca, joined them u See Koran, chap. Sale, Mills, y See Gibbon. The flight gave birth to the Mohammedan sera of computing time, and is supposed to have occurred about the year of our Lord z. A powerful party welcomed him with acclamation, he assumed the regal and sacerdotal dignity, and his interest was further strengthened by the marriage of his daughter Fatima, the only surviving child of his wife Khadijah, to his cousin Ali.
Here, having purchased a small portion of land, the patrimony of two or- phans, he erected a mosque for the duties of religion and officiated there, when he prayed and preached in the weekly assembly in a style of rude simplicity, leaning against the trunk of a palm-tree. Few can hold the cup of prosperity with an even hand: But even this did not satisfy the Prophet: Notwithstanding all the efforts of his fol- lowers at vindication, regarding it as typical a See Koran, chap.
His public pro- ceedings are directly opposed to his former declarations. The gentle and patient teacher and admonisher at Mecca, he who for thirteen years had opposed the dissentients there with meek endurance, now renounces his former principles, and grasps the sword which was henceforth considered as the key of Paradise!
Mohammed had discovered at Mecca, after the most unremitting exertion, the slow progress of Proselytism from preaching only: Some intimation of a change of system had been given in the 22nd chapter of the Koran, which was revealed a little before his flight from Mecca; but the 8th and 9th chapters deli- vered at Medina are decidedly of a warlike complexion. All his manoeuvres are charac- terized by deep sagacity and consummate policy.
He powerfully works upon the pas- sions and superstitious feelings of his fol- lowers, which were constantly raised to a pitch of high excitement, and never suffered to subside. With such an engine ever ready for action, Mohammed's course was success- ful, and difficulties vanished. Whatever suited his purpose was carefully registered in the mystic page. Every instance of good fortune was described as a direct interposition of God; failure or defeat were attributed to their own sins of disobedience, or designed to ex- ercise and prove their virtues.
Fighting for the faith was extolled as a most meritorious service, and death in the cause as a certain passport to the distinguished joys of Para- dise: The enthusiasm and devotion of his troops were thus unbounded. Nothing was difficult to men so excited. They were fight- ing in the presence of the Prophet of Heaven: Whilst all was fervour and enthusiasm among them, Mohammed, like the presiding genius of the storm, was cool and collected, controlling and directing the ardour of his troops to the accomplishment of his self-in- terested and ambitious projects.
His first at- tacks were directed against the caravans, to revenge himself on the Koreish, by which plunder was acquired.
Mohammed's forces were said to have consisted of no more than men fwhilst the Koreish were nearly a thousand strong, yet, notwithstanding such a disparity of numbers, he routed and van- quished them, killing seventy, and taking an equal number of prisoners, with the loss to himself of only fourteen individuals. The Koran points out three things as mira- culous in this engagement. That God dismissed to their assist- ance firstand afterwards angels, under Gabriel, who are said to have done all the execution, though it is acknowledged that the troops acquitted themselves he- roically, and from appearances might justly arrogate the credit of the victory to them- selves.
The Prophet here most adroitly pretends to have received directions re- specting the division of the spoil, which the Koran orders to be divided equally amongst them, with the reservation of a fifth part for particular purposes. The following specimen of his skill in restoring the spirits of his party, is in the third chapter of the Koran: They are filled with joy for the fa- vour which they have received from God and his bounty, and that for that God suffereth not the reward of the faithful to perish.
A tempest of wind and hail, and mutual dis- agreements, separated the confederates. Mo- hammed improves these incidents to his ad- vantage g. The Nadhirites, who surrendered at discretion, perhaps with the expectation of mercy, experienced the vanity of their hopes in the humanity of the Pro- phet When I was preparing to pass over into Sicily and Greece, the melancholy intelligence which I received, of the civil commotions in England, made me alter my purpose; for I thought it base to be travelling for amusement abroad, while my fellow citizens were fighting for liberty at home.
While I was on my way back to Rome, some merchants informed me that the English Jesuits had formed a plot against me if I returned to Rome, because I had spoken too freely on religion; for it was a rule which I laid down to myself in those places, never to be the first to begin any conversation on religion; but if any questions were put to me concerning my faith, to declare it without any reserve or fear.
I nevertheless returned to Rome. I took no steps to conceal either my person or my character; and for about the space of two months, I again openly defended, as I had done before, the reformed religion in the very metropolis of popery. By the favour of God, I got safe back to Florence, where I was received with as much affection as if I had returned to my native country. There I stopped as many months as I had done before, except that I made an excursion for a few days to Lucca; and crossing the Apennines, passed through Bologna and Ferrara to Venice.
Ephesus - Wikiwand
After I had spent a month in surveying the curiosities of this city, and had put on board a ship the books which I had collected in Italy, I proceeded through Verona and Milan, and along the Leman lake to Geneva. The mention of this city brings to my recollection the slandering More, and makes me again call the Deity to witness, that in all those places, in which vice meets with so little discouragement, and is practised with so little shame, I never once deviated from the paths of integrity and virtue, and perpetually reflected that, though my conduct might Edition: At Geneva I held daily conferences with John Deodati, the learned professor of theology.
Then pursuing my former route through France, I returned to my native country, after an absence of one year and about three months; at the time when Charles, having broken the peace, was renewing what is called the episcopal war with the Scots; in which the royalists being routed in the first encounter, and the English being universally and justly disaffected, the necessity of his affairs at last obliged him to convene a parliament.
But it was not from cowardice that he preferred the closet to the field, and he saw no absurdity in adding to his light income by teaching, while he wrote his immortal works on the nature and necessity of liberty. Since from my childhood I had been devoted to the more liberal studies, and was always more powerful in my intellect than in my body, avoiding the labours of the camp, in which any robust soldier would have surpassed me, I betook myself to those weapons which I could wield with the most effect; and I conceived that I was acting wisely when I thus brought my better and more valuable faculties, those which constituted my principal strength and consequence, to the assistance of my country and her honourable cause.
The outrageous abuses of power by the weak minded and passionate king, and the despotism of the episcopal officers, caused the popular heart to beat as the sea heaves in a storm; and the restraints of established authority, made weaker every day by over exertion, were soon altogether to cease. The Long Parliament was in session; the bigoted and persecuting Primate had been impeached; and the Second Spirit of the Revolution stepped before the audience of the world, to be in all the great period which followed the most earnest and powerful champion of the cause of the people.
In this he attempts to show that prelacy is incompatible with civil liberty, and to the support of this proposition he brings learning more various and profound, a power of reasoning, and an impassioned eloquence, unprecedented in English controversy. O let them not bring about their damned designs, that stand now at the entrance of the bottomless pit, expecting the watchword to open and let out those dreadful locusts and scorpions, to reinvolve us in that pitchy cloud of infernal darkness, where we shall never more see the sun of thy truth again, never hope for the cheerful dawn, never more hear the bird of morning sing.
Be moved with pity at the afflicted state of this our shaken monarchy, that now lies labouring under her throes, and struggling against the grudges of more dreadful calamities. Hitherto thou hast but freed us, and that not fully, from the unjust and tyrannous claim of thy foes; now unite us entirely, and appropriate us to thyself, tie us everlastingly in willing homage to the prerogative of thy eternal throne.
Milton had commenced the controversy, and he did not shrink from its prosecution. He thought that on subjects to the consideration of which he was early led solely by his love of truth and reverence for Christianity, he should not reason worse than they who were contending only for their emoluments and usurpations.
He wrote, therefore, in answer to the bishops, the tract on Prelatical Episcopacy, and in the same year, The Reason of Church Government urged against Prelacy. In the beginning of the yearthe English hierarchy was abolished by act of parliament, with the royal assent: Milton was now but thirty-four years of age.
Had he never written more than the works already finished, he would have been one of the greatest benefactors of the church and of mankind. He had surpassed all the masters of eloquence in his own country and language, and equalled the greatest of all the ages, in those voices for liberty which, though long silent, are destined to ring with a clear and sonorous sound through many centuries around the world.
Shakspeare had shown the capacities of our tongue for harmony and beauty. Milton, rivalling his immortal predecessor in mastery of its melodies, developed all its vigour and grandeur, and by his words fought such battles as the genius of his elder brother alone might fittingly record.
His susceptibility to impressions from loveliness is shown in the episode of his history which connects it with that of Leonora Baroni of Rome.
He was now suddenly captivated by the person and manners of Mary, a daughter of Richard Powell of Oxfordshire, whom he married and brought to London.
Of a royalist family, and accustomed to an affluent gayety, she soon grew weary of the frugality and quiet simplicity which reigned in the house of her husband, and in a few weeks requested permission to revisit her relatives, with whom she remained, in spite of his remonstrances, the whole summer, refusing even to answer his letters or to see his messengers.
This so incensed him, that he resolved to repudiate her on the grounds of disobedience and desertion; and to justify himself he published inThe Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, addressed to the parliament. He held it to be an absurdity that every union by priest or magistrate, of parties reeling from the bagnio or under the influence of any fraud or terror, was a joining by God, and that an unsuitable disposition of mind was a far better reason for divorce than such infirmities of body as were good grounds in law, provided there were a mutual consent for separation.
The treatise was soon followed by The Judgment of Martin Bucer Concerning Divorce, and in the next year by Tetrachordon and Colasterion, the last being a reply to an anonymous assailant. He exhibited in no other works more accurate and extensive learning, or greater skill in argument; and if his assumptions are wrong, his reasoning is to this day unanswered.
These treatises kindled against him the enmity of the Presbyterian divines, who, unmindful of his recent important services, now assailed him from the pulpit and the press with malignant bitterness, and even caused him to be summoned before the parliament, by which tribunal however he was promptly acquitted, so that his persecutors by their weak wickedness gained no advantage, and alienated forever the most powerful supporter of their cause.
In the same year in which Milton wrote his works on divorce, he also produced his remarkable Tractate on Education, in which are embodied all the best ideas of the next two centuries on the subject; and that Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing, which in the splendour of its diction and the irresistible force of its reasoning, continues to be without a parallel in the literature of the world.
He was the first to assert the unlimited right of discussion, and has left nothing to be said on this question by succeeding ages. Next to the Almighty, she needs no policies, no stratagems, no licensings, to make her victorious. Let her and Falsehood Edition: They only preferred the Genevan gown to the cassock. They would permit the publication of no book which their illiterate or illiberal licensers could not understand, or which contained sentiments above the vulgar superstition.
But under the Protectorate, when this Speech was read by Cromwell, whose genuine greatness triumphed over enslaving precedents, its lofty eloquence and faultless argument induced him to establish by law that perfect freedom of the intellect without which all other liberty is a mockery.
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For a while Milton returned to those more elegant pursuits to which he was led by the genial power of nature, and in brought out a collection of his early poems. The execution of Charles inhowever, caused the direction of his attention once more to public affairs, and a few weeks after that event he published The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, wherein he maintained that it is lawful and had been held so through all ages for any who have the power to call to account a tyrant, and after due conviction to depose and put him to death.
Sir Edgerton Brydges remarks of this proposition, that it is so objectionable as in these days to require no refutation; but in the United States, where the divine right of any man to oppress his fellows is not held, we think differently; and our admiration of Milton suffers no abatement, but rather is greater, for this and other works of like spirit which have been the prime causes of the unjust estimation in which he continues to be held in his own country.
Gauden, bishop of Exeter. In this he is represented in the constant exercise of prayer to God for the justice and mercy which were denied him by men. It was calculated to produce a strong reaction in the public mind in his favour, and the sale of fifty thousand copies in a few weeks showed the necessity of counteracting its influence.
Milton had scarcely finished this unanswerable work when he was called upon to do battle for the republican party on a wider field. Thus far his audience had been the English nation; he was now to address the family of civilized mankind. The son of the late king having found a refuge in the states of Holland, prevailed upon Claudius Salmasius, in the general estimation the first scholar of the age, to undertake the vindication of prelacy and monarchy in his Defensio Regia pro Carolo Primo ad Carolum Secundum, which was published near the close of the year Although this book disappointed the learned by its want of method and occasional feebleness, the arsenal whence Burke drew the artillery of his most powerful declamation cannot be so contemptible a performance as it has been the custom to represent it.
Certainly, addressed as it was to the fraternity of kings, and with the weight it derived from the name of Salmasius, it was likely to produce an effect, and the Council of State saw at once that it must be answered.
Milton was present at their sitting when they resolved that he should meet the champion of the Pretender. His sight was already greatly impaired, and he was warned by his physicians that total blindness would inevitably result from such labours; but he would listen to no voice opposed to that of the heavenly monitor within his breast.
Notwithstanding his blindness, Milton continued to discharge the duties of his office; and two years after his loss of sight he contracted a second marriage with Catherine, a daughter of Captain Woodcock, to whom he was bound by the fondest affection.
Within a year after their union however she died, like his first wife, in giving birth to a child, who soon followed her to the grave. It was full of the grossest abuse of the parliament as well as of Milton, who in his answer, entitled Defensio Secunda pro Populo Anglicano contra Infamem Libellum anonymum cui titulus Regii Sanguinis Clamor, etc.TURKEY: Library of Celsus, Ephesus
With this and two subsequent answers to More, he closed his controversial labours, though he still continued to serve the state as foreign secretary. The greatness of his intellect and the purity of his heart are too conspicuous in all his works for any one to doubt the inherent grandeur of his character; and nearly the only ground upon which any one ventures now to assail him is that of his having continued in office under the Protector, whom it is a custom of English sophomores to denounce as a parricide and an usurper, but whom the intelligent and true hearted in all nations look upon as one of the noblest patriots and statesmen who ever guided the course of empire.
His victories won, and an imperial crown within his grasp, with an unparelleled moderation he gave his countrymen the most free and perfect of constitutions, reserving to himself powers scarcely equal to those of a president of our own republic. The career of no ruler was ever marked by more justice, wisdom, or genuine love of country; and though Milton may have disapproved of some acts of his administration, it was not inconsistent with any of his professions or principles, or with anything that has been said in praise of him, that he continued to be his associate in office and his friend.
As the people expected nothing good of him, they threw him into prison and murdered him. Mithridates took revenge and inflicted terrible punishments. However, the Greek cities were given freedom and several substantial rights. Ephesus became, for a short time, self-governing.
Sulla imposed a huge indemnity, along with five years of back taxes, which left Asian cities heavily in debt for a long time to come. Ephesus then entered an era of prosperity, becoming both the seat of the governor and a major centre of commerce.
According to Strabo, it was second in importance and size only to Rome. This marked the decline of the city's splendour. However emperor Constantine the Great rebuilt much of the city and erected new public baths. The Roman population[ edit ] Until recently the population of Ephesus in Roman times was estimated to number up topeople. Such a large estimate would require population densities only possible in modern times, or extensive settlement outside the city walls. This would have been impossible at Ephesus because of the mountain ranges, coastline and quarries which surrounded the city.
Ruins Temple of Hadrian. The wall of Lysimachus has been estimated to enclose an area of hectares 1, acres. Jerome Murphy-O'Connor uses an estimate of hectares acres for the inhabited land.
The Mohammedan system of theology
Using an average population density of to per hectare, he calculates that Ephesus would have had a population betweenand , with a preference for the higher figure. Hanson estimates the inhabited space to be smaller at hectares acres. He argues that population densities of or people per hectare are more realistic, which gives a range of 33, to 56, inhabitants. Even with these much lower population estimates, Ephesus was one of the largest cities of Roman Asia Minor, ranking it as the largest city after Sardis and Alexandria Troas.
The basilica of St. John was built during the reign of emperor Justinian I in the 6th century. The city was partially destroyed by an earthquake in AD. The loss of its harbour caused Ephesus to lose its access to the Aegean Seawhich was important for trade. People started leaving the lowland of the city for the surrounding hills. The ruins of the temples were used as building blocks for new homes.