Sacred Valley of the Incas | Sacred Valley Hikes
Agriculture was tough business in the Andes. The Incas actively set about carving up mountains into terraced farmlands—so successful were. So the inca culture created its own calendar, which must have collected the experience from previous times. About it, the chronists polo de ondegardo, Guaman. This entire site is surrounded by many Incan agricultural terraces. Chinchero can also pride in beautiful and fine weaved textiles having typical designs of the.
This refers to the heat capacity of the soil and can be measured during Austral winter time by a simple trick: Get to the zone before sunrise, put some of the soil into a dish and expose it to the rising sun. Then take the time until the ice is melted and the frozen piece of soil is disintegrated. What does that mean to Moray and John Earls?
The first point is that John Earls uses an approach that is known as model study concerning the Inca agriculture. A model requires a free variable input variable and a depending variable output variable.
I will make the issues explicit concerning some itemized arguments by the US engineers : Their chief argument, beside the is the impossibility of getting a heavy load of irrigation water into the sinkholes of Moray without having them disintegrated by the effects of landslides waycus provoked by the water discharge. In Taucar we have learned that the relevant variable is wind due to the fall-wind erosion. Therefore the water conductivity is less relevant, especially if a gradient of soil moisture and air humidity by water flows should have been studied.
Concerning v agricultural labs at the valley bottom raises the question of the condition the valley bottom was in before the Incas transformed the landscape by horizontal terraces and a rectified river at Pisaq.
What about the sediment patterns beneath the archaeological strata of human origin? Concerning vi the patterns of soil temperature according to Earls are not significant enough to back the agricultural lab hypothesis and are a product of their exposure to the sun.
So the heat capacity matters. In addition to it, Moray has chief water inlets running down to the bottom. The monumental architecture argument item xii-xiii is an issue of taste.
The viii problem of the 20 inch precipitation requires an explanation why the entire plain of Maras, where Moray is situated, is agriculturally used, and especially, the present 20 inch precipitation is depending on the global atmospheric pressure regime, which was not the same during the MCA as it is today.
The standards of maize are due to ethno-historical sources on the overarching importance of maize agriculture during the Inca time, whereas the word moraya refers to proceeded potatoes. Today agricultural experiments had been done in Moray Fig. The Quechuq muyu sinkhole planted with beans in 3.
The Inca Ceremonial and agriculture calendar
Had there been experimental sites in the Andean world? According to El Alcaya  the carved rock of Samaipata was a center for maize development to endorse reciprocity and relations to the people of Grigota at the plains. Anyway, Hurtado Fuertes  portrays the Inca food system. Anyway, a sharp relief of mountain slopes and microclimatic slots can act as selection criteria for outcrossing plants and crops, which is somehow a response to the fact that Vavilov centers are situated in the tropical or subtropical mountain zones.
This requires closer investigations. The problem is that the relevance of these actions can be explained clearly by the issue of socio-ecologic resilience.
This should have some impact on the discussions of world systems  which we cannot discuss here. The issue of response agriculture is also to be taken into account. A comparative history between South-East Asia and Western South America could make things clear, also in terms of social history, because the issue of socio- ecological configurations or modes of productions are far from being clear, so that specific socio-economic configurations are to be established empirically .
This refers especially to the systems of the agricultural areas of original crop diversity. Conclusion The theory of Moray as a crop laboratory was not that of John Earls, he checked local traditions. The Inca as super-human to control ecological and social reproduction has already been portrayed by Maurice Godelier , therefore the idea of an Inca landscape design is something familiar, however he required something to put this ideology to the test.
A crop lab or a laboratory for designing terraces or whatsoever would be an asset. Acknowledgements The pilot project was sponsored by the Austrian Academy of science within the focus: Bauer and Stephan A.
Barcelona  Bauer, B. Heartland of the Inca, Austin: University of Texas Press  Bauer, Br. Mai  Conrad, A. What happened in history? This way the era of cultural contac was forming through colonial and viceray times, which shows in religious, civil and domestic architecture, in the wooden glasses or keros, painting canvases, sculpture, mural painting, etc.
This way, the cathedral built between and in a zone higher than the square which gives it more precense, was builit over the palace or temple of Wiraqocha. Besides the architecture, it is the deposit of valuable art works, outstand the the painting on wood by the Italian priest Bernardo Democrito Bitti, the canvases by Basilio Santa Cruz Pumacallao, Marcos Zapata, amog others. We should mention the altar pieces, pulpits, chairs and sculptures.
Its main altar piece is considered one of the most beautiful in Peru. The pictorial work inside was done by the priests from the same jesuit order and other artists of the time like Diego de la Puente, Marcos Zapata, Marcos Rivera, among others.
We should mention that its first altar of mannerist style was damaget by the earthquake in and substituted by the present; elements which compased that altar still remain in painting on wood in the form of five embossments that are exhibited in the Museum Casa Garcilaso. The church and convent of la Merced is another of the religious buildings with basilica plant, it is known as the minor Basilica; integrates two cloisters, the firs in which you can appreciate the most exquisite example of the half breed baroque and the second which has a more saber architecture and is for the novices.
To help travelers on their way, rest houses were built every few kilometers. In these rest houses, they could spend a night, cook a meal and feed their llamas.
Their bridges were the only way to cross rivers on foot. If only one of their hundreds of bridges was damaged, a major road could not fully function; every time one broke, the locals would repair it as quickly as possible. Each allyu was supervised by a curaca or chief. Families lived in thatched-roof houses built of stone and mud. Furnishings were unkown with families sitting and sleeping on the floor.
Potatoes were a basic Inca food. The Imperial Incas clothed themselves in garments made from Alpaca and many of their religious ceremonies involved the animal. They wore sandals on their feet. In Inca social structure, the ruler, Sapa Inca, and his wives, the Coyas, had supreme control over the empire. Then came the Four Apus, the regional army commanders.
Next were temple priests, architects, administrators and army generals. Next were artisans, musicians, army captains and the quipucamayoc, the Incan accountants. At the bottom were sorcerers, farmers, herding families and conscripts. Inca society continued uninterrupted in this way for hundreds of years.
The appearance of light-skinned strangers during the rule of Atahuallpa, however, was to forever change things for the Inca. Deadly plague would soon sweep through the Inca empire. Those that survived had to face the swords and cannons of the invading Spanish. After leading the Spanish to more gold than they had ever before seen, even Lord Atahuallpa was strangled by his Spanish captors.
Every style of hand-weaving was practiced by the Incas.
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They used this instead of writing in some cases. They also made very artistic pottery. Incas knew how to smelt and cast metals so they made many different types of instruments such as trumpets and bells out of materials such as brass or stone.
As the tribe expanded and conquered other tribes, like the Paracas, the Incans began to consolidate their empire by integrating not only the ruling classes of each conquered tribe but also developing a universal language, calling it Quechua pronounced KECH-WUN.
This ubiquitous integration encompassed the histories, myths and legends of each subject tribe; stories being intentionally combined, adopted or obliterated, or just accidentally confused. This practice was characteristic of the Incans quest for organization and structure. The Amautas, a special class of wise men who perpetuated traditions of the people, history and legend, redefined myths where and when necessary to establish miracles of faith or precedent or sanctions.
All of the elements of which they depended, and even some they didn't were give a divine character. They believed that all deities were created by an ever-lasting, invisible, and all-powerful god named Wiraqocha, or Sun god. The Inca were a deeply religious people.
They feared that evil would befall at any time. Sorcerors held high positions in society as protectors from the spirits. They also believed in reincarnation, saving their nail clippings, hair cuttings and teeth in case the returning spirit needed them.
The religious and societal center of Inca life was contained in the middle of the sprawling fortress known as Sacsahuaman. At such a place the immense wealth of the Inca was clearly evident with gold and silver decorating every edifice. The secret of Inca wealth was the mita. This was a labor program imposed upon every Inca by the Inca ruler. Since it only took about 65 days a year for a family to farm for its own needs, the rest of the time was devoted to working on Temple-owned fields, building bridges, roads, temples, and terraces, or extracting gold and silver from the mines.
The work was controlled through chiefs of thousands, hundreds and tens. The Incas worshipped the Earth goddess Pachamama and the sun god, the Inti. The Inca sovereign, lord of the Tahuantinsuyo, the Inca empire, was held to be sacred and to be the descendant of the sun god. Thus, the legend of the origin of the Incas tells how the sun god sent his children Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo and in another version the four Ayar brothers and their wives to found Cuzco, the sacred city and capital of the Inca empire.
Inti Raymi, the feast of the sun The "Inti Raymi" or "Sun Festivity" was the biggest, most important, spectacular and magnificent festivity carried out in Inca times. It was aimed to worship the "Apu Inti" Sun God. It was performed every year on June 21, that is, in the winter solstice of the Southern Hemisphere, in the great Cuzco Main Plaza. In the Andean mythology it was considered that Incas were descendants of the Sun, therefore, they had to worship it annually with a sumptuous celebration.
More over, the festivity was carried out by the end of the potato and maize harvest in order to thank the Sun for the abundant crops or otherwise in order to ask for better crops during the next season. Besides, it is during the solstices when the Sun is located in the farthest point from the earth or vice versa, on this date the Quechuas native people of the Andes who speak "quechua" language had to perform diverse rituals in order to ask the Sun not to abandon its children.
Some days before the ceremony, all the population had to practice fast and sexual abstinence. Before dawn on June 21st the Cusquenian nobility, presided over by the Inca and the Willaq Uma High Priestwere located on the Haukaypata the Plaza's ceremonial portionthe remaining noble population were placed on the Kusipata southwestern portion. Prior to this the "Mallki" mummies of noble ancestors were brought and they were located in privileged sectors so that they could witness the ceremony.
At sunrise, the population had to greet the Sun God with the "much'ay" "mocha" in its Spanish form sending forth-resounding kisses offered symbolically with the fingertips. After all that, people sang in tune solemn canticles in a low voice that later were transformed into their "wakay taky" weepy songsarriving like this to an emotional and religious climax. The beverage of the tumbler in the right hand was offered to the Sun and then poured into a golden channel communicating the Plaza with the Sun Temple.
The Inca drank a sip of chicha from the other tumbler, the remaining was then drank in sips by the noblemen close to him. Later, chicha was offered to every attendant. Some historians suggest that this ceremony was started inside the Coricancha in presence of the Sun representation that was made of very polished gold that at the sunrise was reflected with a blinding brilliance.
Later the Inca, along with his retinue, went toward the great Plaza through the "Intik'iqllu" or "Street of the Sun" present-day Loreto street in order to witness the llama sacrifice. During this most important religious ceremony in Incan times, the High Priest had to perform the llama sacrifice offering a completely black or white llama.
With a sharp ceremonial golden knife called "Tumi" he had to open the animal's chest and with his hands pulled out its throbbing heart, lungs and viscera, so that observing those elements he could foretell the future. Later, the animal and its parts were completely incinerated. After the sacrifice, the High Priest had to produce the Sacred Fire.
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Staying in front of the Sun he had to get its rays in a concave gold medallion that contained some soft or oily material in order to produce the fire that had to be kept during next year in the Koricancha and Aqllawasi. Subsequently the priests offered the Sanqhu that was something like "holy bread" prepared from maize flour and blood of the sacrificed llama; its consumption was entirely religious as a Christian host is. Once that all ritual stages of the Inti Raymi were finished, all the attendants were located in the southwestern Plaza's sector named Kusipata Cheer Secto" present-day Plaza del Regocijo where after being nourished, people were entertained with music, dances and abundant chicha.
Nowadays, the Inti Raymi is staged annually in Saqsaywaman on June 24th with the participation of hundreds of actors wearing typical outfits. It's a great opportunity to imagine the life at the Incas time. People lived in the nearby villages and traveled into town for festivals or business.
The city was mainly used for the government. All the records for nearby villages were reported by their leaders and recorded in the city by the quipucamayoc. About the only people who lived in the city were the metalworkers, carpenters, weavers and other crafters who made artwork for the temples.
These people lived in the artisans' quarters. Outside of the cities were the government storehouses and soldiers' barracks. In every major Inca city, the Sapa Inca had a palace for use when he visited the city. On those grounds were the convents for the Sun Virgins and houses for servants. The buildings on the grounds were single storied edifices, built of stone with a thatched grass roof. Their only entrance was to the courtyard that they were on. Children worked by scaring away animals from the crops and helping in the home.
Some of the goods would be distributed to others, goods would be received in return, and the rest was stored in government storehouses or sacrificed to the gods. Each ayllu - clans - had their own self-supporting farm community.