Gran Colombia - Wikipedia
Gran Colombia is a name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South .. of the status of treaties and accords dating to the revolutionary period (–) and Gran Colombia La Historia de Panamá en sus textos. 1 Museo de Historia Natural, Departamento de Mastozoología, Universidad Nacional Mayor Email Carlos Jiménez: [email protected] . Cameras operated 24h per day recording date and time of each photograph and power was . Mammals of the Neotropics: the northern Neotropics, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela. map pangea - Yahoo Search Results Prehistoric World, Prehistoric Animals, .. TectonicsWorld GeographyHistoria UniversalHistory Of The WorldGreek Name Days Here's how much the average single American spends on their dating life El Mapa de la Gran Colombia - Gobernación de Guayaquil Gran Colombia.
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To break up regionalist tendencies and to set up efficient central control of local administration, a new territorial division was implemented in The departments of Venezuela, Cundinamarca and Quito were split into smaller departments, each governed by an intendant appointed by the central government, with the same powers that Bourbon intendants had.
In its first years, Gran Colombia helped other provinces still at war with Spain to become independent: The Gran Colombian army later consolidated the independence of Peru in Federalists and separatists[ edit ] The departments of Gran Colombia in A map of Gran Colombia showing the 12 departments created in and territories disputed with neighboring countries As the war against Spain came to an end in the mids, federalist and regionalist sentiments that had been suppressed for the sake of the war arose once again.
There were calls for a modification of the political division, and related economic and commercial disputes between regions reappeared. Ecuador had important economic and political grievances. Since the end of the eighteenth century, its textile industry had suffered because cheaper textiles were being imported.
After independence, Gran Colombia adopted a low-tariff policy, which benefited agricultural regions such as Venezuela. His top priority was the war in Peru against the royalists, not solving Ecuador's economic problems. Having been incorporated later into Gran Colombia, Ecuador was also underrepresented in all branches of the central government, and Ecuadorians had little opportunity to rise to command positions in the Gran Colombian army.
Bacteriology in Peru was just consolidating by the time when the Harvard expedition arrived. Ricardo Flores donated a bacteriology laboratory to the Faculty of Medicine and gave a free course on microscopic and bacteriology techniques for a year; then the course was assigned to David Matto, who was the main scientific collaborator of Richard Strong upon his arrival in Peru.
The textual conclusions by Harvard were: From a scientific point of view, there are four important facts in the report by the Harvard expedition: It recognized the B. It wrongly raised the dualist theory, stating that the Oroya fever and the Peruvian wart were different diseases caused by different etiologic agents and ignoring the scientific conclusions of Carrion.
It acknowledged that bartonelosis by B. It carried out unethical human experimentation on a psychiatric patient. Harvard proposes the name of Bartonella baciliformis Alberto Barton Thompson became a medical student at Universidad de San Marcos in and devoted his research to the microscopic observation of several samples of patients diagnosed with Peruvian wart since Inhe worked as a temporary intern at Hospital Italiano, where his main goal was to look for patients with suspected diagnosis of this disease in order to obtain blood samples and further research on his thesis project, which aimed to find the germ that killed Carrion 23, Barton himself, after returning from Europe, acknowledged his mistake Also by that time, Biffi observed the B.
Inafter conducting graduate studies at the School of Tropical Medicine in London, Barton specialized in the study of the Peruvian wart in the laboratory of Hospital Guadalupe del Callao. When evaluating the peripheral blood smears of two of his patients, structures that resembled bacilli in red blood cells drew his attention.
During the Fifth Latin American Medical Congress held in Lima days before the Harvard report, Ernesto Odriozola and Julian Arce did not mention the discovery of Barton in their lectures, the most anticipated of the event 16, The patient did not reproduce Oroya fever, only the Peruvian wart. No bacteria were found in histological sections of warts, and since warts resemble smallpox eruptions, a virus similar to this disease was proposed.
These two findings, along with the recognition of the B.
Peruvian wart was caused by a virus and Oroya fever by B. The verbatim report of the findings of the commission stated: Given the prestige of Harvard University, the erroneous conclusions of the committee were disclosed and reached medical texts worldwide; for example, the Treaty of Tropical Diseases by Manson, at the time, exposed the Oroya fever and the Peruvian wart in different chapters, while various journals indicated that the wart was caused by a virus.
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The expedition erroneously concluded that the Oroya fever and the Peruvian wart were different diseases based only on experimental evidence without considering observational, clinical and epidemiological facts. This conclusion was wrong because science must seek as much evidence as possible on the causality of an infectious disease. Own elaboration based on the data obtained in the study. Oswaldo Hercelles, regarding the Harvard report, stated: Strong, designated the disease with the name of Bartonella baciliforme, but this same commission made a mistake, [ Odriozola proclaimed the unity of Oroya fever and Peruvian wart based on clinical and epidemiology data and describes that there are countless cases of Oroya fever during which wart rash appears; among these, several cases of patients who traveled to Europe and developed the wart stage on the continent were found Carlos Monge Medrano, recognized for his studies in heights, also conducted a productive scientific work on this disease; at the School of Tropical Medicine in London, he studied and noted that the mistakes of the Harvard expedition were the consequence of its short stay in Peru three months and, therefore, its conclusions were premature 33 Figure 3.
InNoguchi et al. The Harvard University conducted a second expedition confirming the findings of Noguchi and concluding the following: The main advocate of the unicist theory, before French scientists, was the Peruvian doctor Ramon Ribeyro.
The Peruvian National Academy of Medicine, in response, issued a joint statement defending and consolidating the unicist theory to date The contrast between the two theories caused a broad scientific discussion between the Harvard University and the Peruvian Medical School and several hypotheses were proposed: Different causes of Oroya fever and Peruvian wart.
Strong cells The Harvard committee identified only one case of an endothelial cell with abundant B. The unethical human experimentation conducted by Harvard in Peru Regarding human experimentation by the Harvard expedition in Peru, the report by Strong et al. These small tumors gradually grew and were cut at 35 days, two of them to be studied [ In the English version of the publication 12the Harvard Commission changed the report and stated that the patient who was inoculated was a Chilean volunteer 4.
Ironically, in the same Fifth Latin American Medical Congress, where Harvard confirmed the dualist theory based on human experimentation in a psychiatric patient, the first motion of the members of Congress was to improve the health of psychiatric patients Lessons for science A retrospective view of what happened with the Harvard expedition in Peru leads to reflect and draw three lessons related to U. It is important to note that this procedure involved Dr. David Matto, a health authority who, taking advantage of his position as director of the mental hospital, allowed the experiment when he should have been the first to prevent or condemn it.
Strong was recognized for his work and was elected president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine, which publishes one of the most important journals worldwide to date: Previous studies in O.
Our data for Mountain Paca shows more activity from Van Schaik and Griffiths reported for Indonesian mammals a relation between body size and activity patterns, where small mammals tend to be nocturnal as an anti-predation strategy and medium-size mammals are expected to be cathemeral and diurnal. However, our data suggest that the Mountain Paca medium mammal appears to be an exception. Lowland Paca avoids direct competition with the Brown Agouti D.
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The elevational record of the Tayra was increased in meters from the previous one by Alberico et al. In this study, the Ocelot was observed at m, m higher than the previous record. Tewes and Schmidly indicated the Ocelot is able to occupy different sort of habitats such as humid tropical, subtropical forests, swampy savannas, estuarine mangroves and thorny bushes, but it is most common at elevations lower than m Eisenberg We recorded it in both season for which we think that felid is a permanent resident in the area.
Lizcano and Sissa recorded it in the Tabaconas-Namballe National Sanctuary and mentioned that the mountain tapir is absent south of Huancabamba valley.
Our record south of the Huancabamba depression by an unequivocal track extends significantly its range and challenge the role of the Huancabamba Depression as a potential barrier for large mammals. Noteworthy records of mammals found in the study site demonstrates its importance and the need for a better protection status of the Pagaibamba Forest.
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina
In spite of the advance in knowledge, more species are expected to be known in the region. A for allowing us to use and publish this data, and for the logistic support to accomplish this work. Literature cited Alberico M. Abundancia y patrones de actividad del mapache Procyon cancrivorus en un bosque Chiquitano de Bolivia. Factors influencing white-tailed deer activity patterns and habitat use.
Ocelot home range, overlap and density: Journal of Zoology London Activity patterns, home range, and habitat selection of the common hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga Mammalia, Mustelidaein northwestern Patagonia.
The mountain tapir, endangered "flagship" species of the high Andes. Status and action plan of the mountain tapir Tapirus pinchaque. Mammals of the Neotropics: